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Mbe Subjects II - Con Law Outline

Mbe Subjects II - Con Law Outline

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Published by Lal Legal
MBE bar exam lecture notes and outline for Constitutional Law
MBE bar exam lecture notes and outline for Constitutional Law

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Published by: Lal Legal on Jun 11, 2014
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06/11/2014

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MBE CONSTITUTIONAL LAWI. THE NATURE OF JUDICIAL REVIEW
A.Organization of the Courts in the Federal System
(OL I. A.)1.
Federal Court System
a.
Scope of Federal Judicial Power 
(1)Article III, section 2, limits the jurisdiction of the federal courts to: (a)
Law-ased Federal Jurisdiction
1)Cases arising under Constitution law2)Admiralt and maritime cases(!)
Party-ased Federal Jurisdiction
1)".#. go$ernment2)#tate $. #tate%)#tate $. Citi&ens of other #tates')Citi&ens from different states  di$ersit jurisdiction, with *+, in contro$ers+)-oreign dilomats!./he 11th Amendment:
pri!ate indi!iduals cannot sue states for money damages in any court
. #tate so$ereign immunit !ars suits against states in state courts or federal agencies. (1)0cetions to the alication of the 11th Amendment:(a)-ederal suits !rought ! one state against another state (or suits !rought ! the federal go$ernment against a state) (!)#u!di$isions of a state i.e. cities, towns, and counties. owe$er note that suits against state officers are allowed as long as the state treasur will not !e aing retroacti$e damages. (c)3ost suits for injunctions i.e. ri$ate citi&en ma sue to enjoin a state official from acting in $iolation of laintiff4s federal constitutional right (d)A state ma consent to suit in federal court if it clearl wai$es its 11
th
 amendment immunit
 
eressl and une5ui$ocall (e)0nforcement owers: Congress can authori&e ri$ate suits ! indi$iduals to comensate for state $iolations of those amendments
"#A$PL"%
#uose that Congress enacts a law that sas that citi&ens can sue a state for mone damages for torts committed ! state officials. /his cause of action is not created ursuant to 0nforcement 6owers !ecause no issue of constitutional $iolation ! a state. /his cause of action is !loc7ed ! state so$ereign immunit and the 11th Amendment.
"#A$PL"%
#uose Congress enacts a law that sas ri$ate arties can sue states for mone damages for racial discrimination. /his is something that the 1'th Amendment for!ids and we are an enforcing this Amendment8 therefore, it is not !loc7ed ! the 11th Amendment.
2.
Other Limitations on Jurisdiction of Federal Courts
a.
Case or Contro!ersy
(1)Article III, section 2, limits the jurisdiction of federal courts to 9cases and 9contro$ersies.
3nemonic:
 
;A36# (to get into federal court, one must go u the ;A36#).
!.
Standing
(1)Article III re5uires a erson litigating a constitutional 5uestion to show: (a)
&n'ury in Fact
1)Actual or imminent ersonal injur2)0amles of Indi$iduals who lac7 standing:
a)a legislato!)ri$ate indi$idualc)/aae
i)
"#C"P(&O)%
 taaers ha$e standing to sue on esta!lishment clause grounds !ut cannot challenge eecuti$e action ! 6resident or <o$ernor, ad$ancing religion. (!)
Causation
1)=4s conduct must ha$e caused 6laintiff4s injur(c)
*edressa+ility
1)/he litigation must remed the injur or !enefit the laintiff (2)
Specialized Pro+lems of Standing
(a)/hird 6arties:
 )O (,&* PA*( S(A)&)/
1)/he #ureme Court has ermitted a art to raise the constitutional rights of a third art, if the following two conditions are satisfied:0>A3 /I6
 
a)#ecial relationshi so that interest of laintiff are connected to third art4s constitutional rights, A?=!)Incaacit
0>A36L0
% (," S0P*"$" CO0*( ,AS 0P,"L (," *&/,( OF OC(O*S (O S0" O) ",ALF OF PA(&")(S 1,O $&/,( " S""2&)/ AO*(&O)S. (,"*" &S (," SP"C&AL *"LA(&O)S,&P "(1"") (," &)("*"S(S OF (," PA(&")( A) (," OC(O*. (," A*" AL&/)". (,"*" &S ALSO &)CAPAC&(. A 1O$A) S""2&)/ A) AO*(&O) $&/,( )O( 1A)( (O *&)/ (," S0&( 3C OF P*&4AC. (," &)CAPAC&( O"S )O( )"" (O " ASOL0(".
2)An organi&ation has standing to assert the claims of its mem!ers, e$en if the association has not suffered an injur itself, if:
a)3em!er standing!)6urose of the association c)3em!er articiation not re5uired
0>A36L0
% &F (," /O4"*)$")( "S(*OS JO"5S ,O0S" (O 0&L A ,&/,1A6 (," )"&/,O*,OO CA))O( *&)/ A S0&( O) ,&S ",ALF FO* $O)" A$A/"S. ,O1"4"*6 &F (," ,O0S" ,AS )O( "( "") "S(*O"6 (," )"&/,O*,OO ASSOC&A(&O) CA) *&)/ A S0&( *"70"S(&)/ A) &)J0)C(&O).
,PO(,"(&CAL
/he mem!ers of the ?ational 6olitical @oo7 Clu! (?6@C) urchase !oo7s of their choosing relating to contro$ersial olitical issues at a discount rice from ?6@C. /he =eartment of omeland #ecurit has demanded that the ?6@C turn o$er its sales records, including which !oo7s ha$e !een urchased ! each mem!er. ?6@C sues to re$ent the release of information, claiming free association of its mem!ers. ill the clu! ha$e standingB
Do the members have states !es" the# $o be%a&se the# 'ose (r)va%# r)*ht. Is the or*a+),at)o+-s (&r(ose re'ate$ to )+terest be)+* asserte$ be%a&se the# a+t (eo('e to rea$ these boo/s. F)+a''#" there )s +o re0&)reme+t 1or member (art)%)(at)o+ be%a&se threate+e$ )+2&r# )s the same 1or ever#o+e. A+$ the same reme$# )'' re$ress the)r %'a)ms.
c.
*ipeness
(1)=efinition: A lawsuit filed !efore an actual injur.%.
)o Ad!isory Opinions
a.
$ootness

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