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Second Language Acquisition

Second Language Acquisition

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Published by: hashamranjha on Jun 11, 2014
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Second Language Acquisition
“Man is a social Animal”
 
 Just think about the creation of human beings. It is universally believed that our fore-father Hazrat Adam was alone in paradise but was bored and tired of loneliness so he requested God to create another human being to accompany him and thus Eve was created. Now just imagine if a
man gets bored even in the paradise without women‘s company then how
a man can live alone in this world not even a little comparable with paradise.
So, Aristotle‘s saying is m
ore than certain that man cannot live alone; he has to live in company for proper living. And living in company one needs to communicate his ideas, needs and thoughts to the others. And this need was felt when man started life on the Earth and whatever system whether signaling or consisting of articulated sounds he used is called language.
What is Language? Bloch and Trager
A language is a system of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group cooperates .
William Sapir:
Language is purely human and non-instinctive method of communication ideas, emotions and desires by means of voluntarily reduced symbols. 
Hall:
 The institutions whereby human communicate and interact with each other by means of habitually used oral auditory arbitrary symbols.
O. Jespersen:
Language is a set of human habits, the purpose of which is to give expression to thought and feelings and specially to impart tem to others.
Sweet:
Language is the expression of ideas by means of which te speech sounds are combined into words, words are combined into sentences and combination of sentences gives answer to ideas and thoughts.
 
 Nicolas Hans:
Language is one of the symbols of a nation. It expresses the mental character of people who speak it and reflex the feature of their natural surroundings.
Michael Girsdansk:
Language is a set of arbitrary symbols which are placed in orderly relationship with one another according to conventions accepted and understood by the speaker for the transmission of messages.
Charles Barber:
A language, ten, is a signaling system which operates with symbolic vocal sounds and which is used by some group of people for te purpose of communication and social co-operation.
Jean Aitchison:
Language is a pattered system of arbitrary sound signal characterized by structure dependence, creativity, displacement, duality and cultural transmission.
Functions and Uses
Whatever tool is invented it has a basic purpose of inventions but some secondary jobs can also be done by that tool. Language is also a tool; rater the best tool invented by human beings and it also works in the same way.
Basic Function:
 The basic and the foremost function and use of language is the communication of ideas, thoughts and desires which makes the human cooperation possible.  Though there are some other ways of communication also i.e. visual method, the touching method, the smelling method and tasting method, but the use of these senses is extremely restricted as for as human communication is concerned. So language remains the best possible form of communication
which is, in fact, the basic purpose of ―language‖.
 
Secondary Function:
 
Self expression
 
 
Communication
 
Imparting information
 
Making statements
 
Conveying commands
 
Asking questions
 
Making requests.
 
It is used to give delight to oneself purely because of the sonic effect
which language as upon ears e.g. in children‘s word play.
 
It is used to let off steam.
 
It is used as vehicle for one‘s own thoughts when no one else is present.
 
 
It is used as an instrument of thoughts e.g. when a philosopher clarifies his ideas on a subject.
 
It is used for strengthening the bonds of cohesion between the members of a society e.g. when two women gossip over the fence or two men exchanging greeting when they pass through the street.
Ferdinand de Saussure First Language Acquisition:
Language acquisition is the study of the processes through which humans acquire language. By itself, language acquisition refers to first language
acquisition (L1), which studies infants‘ acquisition of their native language,
whereas second language acquisition (L2),deals with acquisition of additional languages in both children and adults. Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate.  The acquisition of language is doubtless the greatest intellectual feat (successful completion of some needful skill) any one of us is ever required to perform (Leonard Bloomfield).  The capacity to learn language is deeply ingrained in us as a species just as te capacity to walk, to grasp objects, to recognize faces. We do not find any serious differences in children growing up in congested urban slums, in isolated mountain villages, or in privileged suburban villas. (Dan Slobin).

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