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Vector AlgebraRatings: (0)|Views: 1,337|Likes: 25

Published by bsnchaitanya

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/22937798/Vector-Algebra

06/18/2013

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1

CHAPTER

–

IVECTOR ALGEBRA

INTRODUCTION:

Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Theory is often called Electromagnetics. It is asubject which deals with electric field, magnetic field and also electromagnetic fields andphenomena.EMF Theory is essential to analyze and design all communication and radarsystems. Infact, it is also used in Bio-Systems and in this context it is called Bio-Electromagnetics. Source of electromagnetic field is electric charges: either at rest or inmotion. However an electromagnetic field may cause a redistribution of charges that inturn change the field and hence the separation of cause and effect is not always visible.

APPLICATIONS OF EMF THEORY:

1. Communication Systems.Wireless CommunicationSatellite CommunicationTV CommunicationCellular CommunicationMobile CommunicationMicrowave CommunicationFibre-Optic Communication.2. Electrical MachinesElectro mechanical Energy conversion systems.Electrical MotorsTransformersElectrical Relays3. RadarsSpeed-trap radarsWeather forecast radarsRemote sensing radarsRadio astronomy radarsMeteorological radars4. IndustriesInduction heatingMelting and forgingSurface hardeningAnnealingSolderingDielectric heating5. All types of antenna analysis and design.6. All types of transmission lines and wave guides.The analysis and design of a system, device or circuit requires the use of sometheory or the other.

2The

analysis

of a system is universally defined as

one by which the output isobtained from the given input and system details.

The

design

of a system is

one by which the system details are obtained from thegiven input and output.

These two important tasks of analysis and design are executed by two mostpopular theories, namely,

CIRCUIT

and

ELECTROMAGNETIC

theories.

COMPARISON OF CIRCUIT AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORIESSl.No. Circuit Theory EMF Theory

1 Deals with Voltage (V) andCurrent (I).Deals with Electric (

E

) and Magnetic (

H

)fields.2 V and I are scalars.

E

and

H

are vectors.3 V and I are functions of time (t).

E

and

H

are functions of time (t) and spacevariables (x, y, z) or (

ρ, φ, z

) or (r

, θ, φ

).4 Radiation effects are neglected. Radiation effects can be considered.5 Circuit theory cannot be used toanalyze or design a completecommunication system.Field theory can be used where circuittheory fails to hold good for the analysisand design of a communication system.6 It is useful at low frequencies. It is useful at all frequencies, particularly athigh frequencies.7 At low frequencies the length of connecting wires is very muchsmaller than

λ.

At high frequencies the length of connecting components are of the order of

λ.

8 Cannot be applied in free space. Is applicable in free space.9 Using circuit theory, transmitterand receiver circuits can beanalyzed and designed. But itcannot be used to design oranalyze a medium like freespace.Using field theory, the medium can also beanalyzed and designed.10

Basic laws are Ohm’s law andKirchhoff’s

law.

Basic laws are Coulomb’s law, Gauss’slaw, Ampere’s circuit law.

11 Basic theorems are The

venin’s, Norton’s

, Reciprocity,Superposition, Maximum powertransfer theorems.Basic theorems are Reciprocity, Helmholtz,

Stoke’s, Divergence and Poynting

theorems.12 Basic equations are Mesh/Loopequations.Basic equations are Maxwell, Poisson,Laplace and Wave.

3

VECTOR ANALYSIS:

The analysis and design of a system or device is impossible without mathematics.Mathematics is the backbone of science and engineering. For all analytical orcomputational purposes, mathematical background is essential. Mathematical modelingof systems is a common practice.Vector analysis is a mathematical tool with which EM concepts are mostconveniently expressed and best comprehended. Vectors are introduced in physics andmathematics, primarily in the Cartesian coordinate system. Although Cylindricalcoordinates are found in Calculus texts, the spherical coordinate system is seldom used.All three coordinate systems must be used in electromagnetics.A quantity can either be a

Scalar

or

Vector.

The term

scalar

refers to a quantity whose value may be represented by a singlepositive or negative real number. In other words, a scalar is a quantity that has onlymagnitude. The x, y, z we speak in basic algebra are scalars and the quantities theyrepresent are scalars.Quantities such as time, mass, distance, temperature, entropy, electric potentialand population are scalars. Voltage is also a scalar quantity, although the complexrepresentation of a sinusoidal voltage, an artificial procedure, produces a

complex scalar,

or

phasor

, which requires two real numbers for its representation such as

amplitude

and

phase angle,

or

real part

and

imaginary part.

A

vector

quantity has both magnitude and direction. We shall be concerned withonly two and three

–

dimensional spaces, but vectors are defined in n - dimensional spacein more advanced applications.Force, velocity, acceleration, electric field intensity and a straight line from thepositive to the negative terminal of a storage battery are examples of vectors. Eachquantity is characterized by both magnitude and direction.There is other class of physical quantities called

Tensors

: where magnitude anddirection vary with coordinate axes.To distinguish between a scalar and a vector, it is customary to represent a vectorby a letter with an arrow on top of it, such as

Ā or Ē

, or by a letter in boldface type suchas

A

and

B.

A scalar is represented simply by a letter

–

e.g. A, B, U and V.EM theory is essentially a study of some particular

fields.

A

field

may be defined mathematically as

some function of a vector which connects anarbitrary origin to a general point in space.

Field concept is invariably related to aregion. It is possible to associate some physical effect with a field, such as the force on a

compass needle in the earth’s magnetic field or the movement of smoke particles in the

field defined by the vector velocity of air in some region of space.Both

scalar fields

and

vector fields

exist. The temperature throughout the bowl of a soup, the density at any point in the earth, sound intensity in a theatre, electric potentialin a region and refractive index of a stratified medium are examples of scalar fields. Thegravitational and magnetic fields of the earth, the voltage gradient in a cable, thetemperature gradient in a soldering

–

iron tip and velocity of rain drops in the atmosphereare examples of vector fields. The value of a field varies in general with both position andtime.

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