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Strawberry Cultivation

Strawberry Cultivation

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Published by ABID H

Its all about the starwberry cultivation.

Its all about the starwberry cultivation.

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Published by: ABID H on Mar 17, 2008
Copyright:Public Domain

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04/15/2013

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STRAWBERRY CULTIVATION IN INDIA
One of the best loved fruits in many parts of the worldare strawberries. Indeed, people from all walks of life trulyenjoy the venerable strawberry. In addition to being adelicious fruit, the strawberry also is a fruit that can be easy tocultivate and grown. The sweet red berries are irresistible toalmost everyone. Very quick to produce their fruits,strawberry plants are an excellent crop. These plants can be awonderful addition to any gardening. Strawberry plants arelush and have attractive blooms. In addition, when the plants are laden with berries, they arelovely indeed. They are different from most fruits in that their seeds are produced on the outsideof the fruit - this combined with their bright red colour has the unfortunate side-effect of makingthem very attractive to birds.Strawberry is a major fruit of temperate region, but with the advent of day-neutralcultivars, it grows profitably well in the sub-tropical regions also. Its commercial cultivationcould not become popular in semi-arid regions of India due to vagaries of climatic conditionsand lack of adequate knowledge on its cultivation. Plasticulture techniques can play veryimportant role in the manipulation of microclimate favourable for its cultivation. Scientificfindings have revealed that use of plasticulture techniques in strawberry cultivation couldrevolutionize its commercial cultivation for higher profitability in the many regions of India.
CULTIVATION1. Climate
Consider avoiding planting strawberry seeds or strawberry plants in an exposed, openarea. Planting strawberries in an exposed, open area is not necessarily the best practice for thesetypes of fruit plants. But they need full sun for the highest yields, at least 6 hours per day.Strawberry thrives best in temperate climate. It is a short day plant, which requires exposure to
 
about 10 days of less than 8 hours sunshine for initiation of flowering. In winter, the plants donot make any growth and remain dormant. The exposure to low temperature during this periodhelps in breaking dormancy of the plant. In spring when the days become longer and thetemperature rises. The plants resume growth and begin flowering. The varieties grown in milder subtropical climate do not require chilling and continue to make some growth during winter.From the standpoint of response to length of the light period, strawberries are placed in twogroups: (1) varieties that develop flower buds during both long and short light periods, theoverbearing varieties and (2) varieties that develop flower buds during the short light periodsonly, most commercial varieties.Strawberries prefer a well drained soil, high in organic matter. Do not plant strawberrieswhere peppers, tomatoes, eggplant and potatoes have been grown. These plants could harbor 
verticillium wilt,
a serious strawberry disease. Neither should strawberries be grown on landwhich has recently had grass growing on it - there will undoubtedly be a large number of wireworms. Strawberries need about one inch of water per week during the growing season.They are very hardy plants during the winter but are not so hardy when they burst into life inspring. Strawberries produce flowers early in the Spring and because they are close to theground, it is important to position strawberries where they have least risk of frost. The highestground is always the best. Frost damage when they start into growth will occur if the temperaturedrops below -2°C or -4°C with poly-tunnel protection.
2. Soil Condition and Soil preparations
Strawberry requires a well-drained medium loam soil, rich in organic matter. The soilshould be slightly acidic with pH from 5.7 to 6.5. At higher pH root formation is poor. The presence of excessive calcium in the soil causes yellowing of the leaves. In light soils and inthose rich in organic matter, runner formation is better. Strawberry should not be cultivated inthe same land for a number of years. It is preferable to plant it in green manured field. Alkalinesoils and soils infected with nematodes should be avoided.Growing strawberries in full sun, infertile, well-drained soil is ideal. They prefer a moist, slightly acidic soil, in the pH range of 5-6, but they are fairly adaptable. If your soil contains a lot of clay or drains poorly, amend soil withorganic matter and plant in hills or in raised beds. Strawberries are not tolerant of salty soil, soavoid it.Strawberries do not produce deep roots, but they very much appreciate their soil being well-dugto a spades depth. So, the land for strawberry planting should be thoroughly prepared by deep ploughing followed by harrowing. Prepare the soil at least one month before planting.Incorporate as much organic matter as possible. A few days before planting apply therecommended dose of fertilizer. Strawberries are greedy feeders over a relatively short period of 
 
time. Liberal quantities of organic manure should be incorporated in the soil before plating.Strawberry can be planted on flat beds, in the form of hill rows or matted rows, or it can be planted on raised beds. In irrigated areas, plantings on ridges is advised.
3.Cultivars
A large number of varieties are available. For the hilly areas, varieties Royal Sovereign, Srinagar and Dilpasand are suitable. Some of the introductions from California, such as Torrey, Toiga andSolana may prove even more successful. The variety found successful in Bangalore has beennamed Bangalore and which has performed well at Mahabaleshwar also. For the north Indian plains, Pusa Early Dwarf which has dwarf plants, large firm wedge-shaped fruits, has beenrecommended. Another variety with rich aroma but softer fruits is Katrain Sweet. Some of thevarieties found successful in warmer parts of the U.S.A. are: Premier Florida-90, Missionary,Blackmore, Klonmore & Klondike. Some of these may prove successful for cultivation in Indian plains.
4. Propagation
Usually runners are most common propagating material for strawberry but now a daysdue to more prevalence of different strains of virus tissue-cultured planting material is preferredwhich is imported from western countries. The runners are selected that formed after the blooming season. The plants may be allowed to set as many runners as possible but not allowedto set any fruits. All the plants with good root system should be utilised to set a new plantation.Given the best attention and care, a single plant usually produces 12 to 18 runners. In some places propagation has been noticed by using seeds and stem cuttings also. Disease-free plantsare important to successful strawberry production. To insure disease-free plants, always buyhealthy, virus-free plants from a reliable nursery rather than using plants from your own or aneighbours planting.
5. PLANTINGA. Planting techniques
For commercial cultivation of strawberry, raised bed cultivation is found quite feasiblewhich ensures proper drainage, easy intercultural operations and facilitates installation of microirrigation system. After land preparation, beds of 25 cm height and 105 cm width of convenientlength should be made at a distance of 50 cm. Planting of runners should be done at 25 cm x 25cm spacing with four rows of plants per bed. About one lakh fresh and healthy runners arerequired for planting in an area of one hectare. Planting time is considered as one of the most

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myworkstudy added this note
cud not be downloaded in pdf
Kaushalendra Verma added this note
where r seed or plants available in uttar pradesh,,INDIA
Bikash Baibhaw added this note
very nice
Harsimran Sangha Athwal added this note
very informative. can u please foward exact details for plantation in punjab that is north indian plains
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