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output devices

output devices

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Published by ahmadadnanqureshi

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Published by: ahmadadnanqureshi on Nov 23, 2009
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08/14/2012

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OUT PUT DEVICES DEALING WITHVIDEO & SOUND
Until 1960s, the computers were unaware of display screens and sound systems they werea little more than a gigantic calculators controlled by switches dials and buttons.But today, modern display and sound systems make the computing more sophisticated.Because of modern output technologies computers are easier to use, data is easier tomanage and information is easier to access.This includes monitor displays and sound system and how they work.
Contents
 Hardware
 Input Devices & Output Devices
Visual Output Devices
Monitors
 Ergonomics
Graphic cards
 Projectors
Sound Systems
Sound cards
Sub woofers
 Headphone
 
1-HARD WARE
Hardware is a part that we can touch. Hardware includes input devices, output devices, processing devices and storage devices. A computer is a system that collects, processes, outputs, and stores information.
 Input Devices
Input devices are necessary to provide ways to communicate with the computer.Information and commands are issued to the computer by way of these devices.Examples of input devices include thekeyboard, mouse,modem, joystick ,digitizing pen and tablet, microphone,touch screens, scanner , camera.
 How They Work?
The main circuit board of a computer is called the motherboard. The main chip in the computer is the central processing unit CPU. It is called the CPU because its main function is to process instructions, manage the flow of information through the computer system, and perform calculations. It is the heart of the computer and communicates withthe output, input and storage devices to perform tasks that are important to thefunctioning of the computer 
 
Output devices
In order to communicate with the computer and get the results of the information youhave put into the computer, output devices are needed. Outputted information can bedisplayed as screen information, printed on paper, or outputted as sound.Examples of output devices includespeakers, monitor ,  printers,and I/O Architecture 
 How They Work?
Output is the result of processes that are done on the computer. An output device receivesinformation from the computer and translates it from machine language to a form thathumans can read or so that another machine can read the information.
Types of Output Devices
Output that is readable by the user can be categorized into two categories:
Hard copy
Hard copy is a relatively permanent form of output that can be read immediately or storedfor later use, such as paper. Printers are the most common hard copy output devices.
Soft copy
Soft copy is a transient form of output, for example, text on a screen display. It is lostwhen the computer is turned off unless it is saved in the main memory or on a disk.
VISUAL OUTPUT DEVICES
 Monitors
Display devices are the visual output devices of computers, the most common type beinga monitor. A monitor looks like a television and has a screen. The monitor will displaywhat the user is doing so he or she can see it before producing a hard copy.
A color monitor can display text or graphics in colour. Colour monitors are usedvery widely today. Some are capable of displaying millions of colours, more thanthe human eye can see, but the average monitor will display up to 256 colours atone time.
Monochrome monitors display a single colour such as green or amber on a black  background or black characters on a white background. These monitors are lessexpensive than colour ones and are often used for word processing.
 
Types Of Monitors
CRT MonitorsLCD Monitors
CRT MONITORS
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube containing anelectron gun(a source of  electrons) and afluorescent screen, with internal or external means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam, used to form images in the form of light emitted from thefluorescent screen. The image may represent electrical waveforms(oscilloscope),  pictures (television,computer monitor 
 
),radar targets and others.The single electron beam can be processed in such a way as to display moving pictures innatural colors.The CRT uses an evacuated glass envelope which is large, deep, heavy, and relativelyfragile.
Working of CRT 
Thecathode raysare now known to be a beam of electrons emitted from a heatedcathode  inside avacuum tubeand accelerated by a potential differencebetween this cathode and an anode. The screen is covered with a phosphorescent coating(often transition metals or  rare earth elements), which emits visible light when excited  by high-energy electrons. The beam isdeflectedeither by amagnetic or an electric fieldto move the bright dot to the required position on the screen.

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