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Ch 25 Chem Guide

Ch 25 Chem Guide

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Published by: mayanb on Nov 24, 2009
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08/30/2013

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Know hybridization! A typical carbon atom is usually sp
3
hybridized
Carbon forms strong bonds: especially with H, O, N and halogens (F,Cl, I…)
Double bonds are stronger than single bonds. Increased bondstrength = shorter bond length
Most Carbon-Carbon and Carbond-Hydrogen bonds are nonpolarbecause the electronegativities almost cancel out.
However C-O and O-H are quite polar
A group of atoms (i.e. C-O-H group) that determines how an organicmolecule reacts is called a functional group
 The non-polar bonds are generally soluble in nonpolar solvents butnot in water
Molecules that are polar are soluble in polar solvents
Acidic substandes: most important are the carboxylic acids (-COOH)
Most important basic substances are the amines (-NHR) (-NH
2
) of (-NR
2
)
o
R is an organic group consisting of some combo of C-C and C-H bonds such as –CH
3
or –C
2
H
5
Hydrocarbons: compounds composed of only H and C. there are 4types
Alkanes have only single bonds (saturated hydrocarbons b/c theyhave the largest # H per C)
Alkenes aka olefins have double bonds
Alkynes have triple bonds
Aromatic hydrocarbond: the C atoms are connected in a planar ring joined by σ and π bonds
All hydrocarbons are relatively nonpolar and insoluble in water
 Their boiling points increase as molar mass increases
Alkanes are used as gases
Long chain alkanes generally undergo constant motion that causes itto change its shape like a chain that is shaken
Structural isomers: can be straight chain and branched chainhydrocarbons
o
Same molecular formula, diff. arrangement
Alkyl groups are named by replacing the –ane ending with –yl
Cycloalkanes are rings sometimes drawn as a polygon in whicheach corner is a CH
2
group (cyclopropane is a triangle)
Aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene have corners with CH groups
Reactions of alkanes: relatively unreactive, unsoluble in water,don’t react with acids, bases, oxidizing agents due to their lack of polarity but they do combust
Unsaturated hydrocarbons
Cis
and
trans
cis
2-butene
trans
2-butene
if a substance contains 2 or more =, each is located by a numerical
 
suffix (hexadiene)
geometric isomers (cis vs. trans.)
double bonds resist twisting
alkynes are highly reactive but not as commonly found
addition reactions (reactant is added to 2 atoms that form themultiple bond) (replace a double bond with 2 more other atoms)
hydrogenation (replacing a double bond with 2 H’s)
2 butyne + Cl2 -> trans 2, 3, dichloro 2 butene
aromatic hydrocarbons: a large and important class
benzene C
6
H
6
 
unsaturated, delocalized π bonds causes it to undergo substitutionreactions
3 possible isomers of benzene with 2 nitro groups attached: ortho,meta, and para dinitrobenzenefunctional groups: (refer to table below)
 This study guide basically has everything except the functional groups interms of R and R’

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