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Food Nutrition 11: Milk to Pectin

Food Nutrition 11: Milk to Pectin

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Published by: Nicoel on Nov 24, 2009
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02/20/2011

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FN 11 HANDOUTS
I. MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS
MILK:
lacteal secretions of the mammary gland termed as a “nearly complete food”
in recipes, this usually pertains to
whole milk 
milk composition: Nutrients, Color Compounds, Enzymes, Gases (carbondioxide, oxygen and nitrogen)
A.
Nutrients
(1)
Water
- accounts for 87.3% of milk; serves as the vehicle in whichsolid food components are dissolved or suspended
(2)
Carbohydrates (4.8%)
- primary carbohydrate:
Lactose
; lactose andlactose intolerance
(3)
Protein
Casein
: the solid fraction of milk protein (80%);
Whey 
: theliquid portion of milk protein (18%)
(4)
Fat (3%)
- known as: Milk Fat or Butter Fat; the caloric content of milkusually ranges from 86-150 calories
(5)
Vitamins
- Vitamin A, vitamin D, riboflavin; milk with reduced fatcontent should be enriched with the fat soluble vitamins A and D
(6)
Minerals
- Calcium: as much as 300 mg per cup; other minerals inmilk include Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium, Sodium Chloride andSulfur
B.
Color compounds -
fat, casein, calcium complexes, riboflavin andcarotenoids all contribute to the opaque, ivory color of milk
C.
Enzymes -
alkaline & acid phosphatase, lipase, catalase, amylase,peroxidasesMILK-RELATED TERMS:
Pasteurization
Homogenization
MSNF or milk solids non-fatMARKET FORMS OF MILK:
1.
Whole Milk - composition has not been altered from the time it was collectedfrom the animal; may be raw, pasteurized or sterilized
2.
Skim Milk - milk from which most of the fat is removed (~1% butterfat); Non-Fat or Very Low Fat Milk
3.
Concentrated Milk
a.
evaporated whole milk 
: whole milk from which 50-60% of the water hasbeen removed; contains not less than 9 % butterfat
 b.
recombined evaporated milk 
: reconstituted; same water content asevaporated whole milk; dried skim milk + butterfat + stabilizer
c.
evaporated filled milk 
: same water content as evaporated whole milk; driedskim milk + plant oil (coconut, corn oil)
d.
sweetened condensed milk 
: evaporated milk to which sugar up to 40-63%(by weight) has been added
e.
dried whole milk 
: powdered whole milk; dehydrated to 97% milk solids; 1part dried whole milk + 4 parts water = whole milk
f.
dried skim milk/non-fat dry milk 
: milk with fat & water removed
 
4.
 Toned Milk - natural milk altered in composition (3% fat, 9% MSNF); carabao’smilk
5.
Bacteria Supplemented Milk - adding live cultures of probiotics to milk;Acidophilus milk (
Lactobacillus acidophilus
)OTHER MILK PRODUCTS:
Cream - Portion of milk that contains most of its fat
 – 
Light Cream: Coffee/table cream (18% butterfat)
 – 
Medium Cream (30-36%)
 – 
Heavy Cream (36-40%)
Cheese - a product made from curd produced by treating milk casein with anenzyme and acid
Butter - the fat that separates from buttermilk when milk is churned
Margarine - made from milk with its fat removed + vegetable fats + coloring
Soy milk - no lactose; should be fortified if to be fed to infantsUSES OF MILK IN FOOD AND FOOD PREPARATION1.Beverage: per se, creamer in coffee and tea2.Ingredient in desserts: custards, frozen desserts, fruit salad, pudding, buttercakes3.Ingredient in entrees: beef stroganoff, chicken ala king, sinanglay4.Ingredient in appetizers: chicken macaroni soupPRINCIPLES IN MILK COOKERY
milk proteins (whey and casein) are sensitive to treatment (heat andingredients)
denaturation and coagulation
problems in milk cookery: Flavor Changes, Scum formation, Scorching,Curdling & Formation of bubbles (custard)1.Flavor changes- milk’s flavor comes from lactose, salts, sulfur compounds & short chain fattyacids; exposure to heat or sunlight, oxidation and feed of the animal couldchange the milk’s flavor2.Scum formation- coagulated casein film (tough membrane) that forms on the surface when apan with milk is cooked uncovered and unstirred3.Scorching- whey
(lactalbumin
and
lactoglobulin)
becomes insoluble, mesh with themilk’s calcium phosphate and precipitate forming a film on the bottom andsides of the pan; constant stirring, low temperature, use of double boiler4.Curdling- casein coagulation, and could be caused by the following: acid and acidicingredients, enzymes, polyphenolic compounds, salt5.Bubbles in custard- results from overcooking; cooking time and temperature should becontrolledSTORAGE
FLUID MILK: stored in the refrigerator; placed inside a closed or coveredcontainer (preferably opaque)
NON-FAT DRY MILK, ULTRAPASTEURIZED CANNED MILK: stored slightly belowroom temperature; placed inside closed containers; canned milks should beturned every now and then
 
II. CHEESE
Milk curds (
CASEIN
) pressed together to form a solid mass
Kesong Puti (native cheese) - A semi-solid cheese with water content of 52%,made from carabao’s milk1.Curing with rennet: Laguna, Cebu and Davao2.Coagulation with vinegar: BulacanCLASSIFICATION OF CHEESES1.Based on moisture content-
Soft cheeses
(55-80%); examples: kesong puti (cottage cheese), creamcheese-
Semi-soft/semi-hard cheeses
(40-50%); examples: blue cheese,gorgonzola-
Hard cheeses
(13-34%); examples: parmesan, cheddar, edam2.Treatment with ripening agents-
Ripened
- bacteria or molds are made to act on protein and lactose tocreate a certain color, flavor and texture; examples: blue cheese, brie andcamembert (mold-ripened); muenster and limburger (bacteria-ripened)-
Unripened -
examples: cottage cheese, cream cheese3.Based on production procedures and ingredients-
Natural
- made from natural methods (ripened with an acid)-
Processed
- a blending of 2 or more types of pasteurized cheesesIII. PECTIN GELSFRUIT SPREADS
1.
 Jams - made from ground or mashed whole fruit
2.
Preserves - made from whole fruits, halves or chunks
CoagulationCoagulation
Enzymeand/or Acid
Cheese curd
 Whey 
Enzyme: rennin (from milk-fed calves, cows, pigs,plant sources and genetically engineered bacteria)Acid (directly added or through inoculated bacterialcultures)

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