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Food Nutrtion 11: Fats and Oils

Food Nutrtion 11: Fats and Oils

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Published by: Nicoel on Nov 24, 2009
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09/06/2010

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FATS AND OILSDifferences between Fats and Oils?
FATOILSTATE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE (18-25
°
C)SolidLiquidSOURCEAnimal Plant* Fats and Oils belong to a group of compounds known as lipids
LIPIDS
: an organic molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygenin varying proportions; can be dissolved in organic solvents (benzene,chloroform, acetone and ether)
Three major groups of edible lipids:
1.triglyceride The attached fatty acid may be:
a.
Saturated
(no double bonds)- from meat, milk, cream, cheese, butter, lard, chocolate, beef tallow,suet and coconut, cottonseed & palm oils
 b.
Monounsaturated
(one double bond)- from olives, peanuts, avocado, canola oil, grapeseed oil, ground nutoil, sesame oil, corn oil, popcorn, whole grain wheat, cereal, oatmeal,safflower oil, sunflower oil, tea-oil Camellia
c.
Polyunsaturated
(two or more double bonds)
-
from vegetable oil (corn, cottonseed, soybean) and fish oil-omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids2.phospholipid- a good emulsifier because of its dual nature (hydrophobic andhydrophilic)3.Sterol
-
an important class of organic molecules naturally occurring inplants, animals and fungi; most familiar type of animal sterol:cholesterol (vital to cellular function, and a precursor to fat-soluble vitamins and steroid hormones)
Classification of fats based on:
1.Appearancea.Visible- easily seen and feels greasy; ex. butter, oils and pork fatsb.Invisible- hidden and not easily recognized; ex. egg yolk, cream, avocadoand lean meat2.Sources
a.
Animal (ex. b
acon, butter, etc.)
 b.
Plants (ex. c
oconut cream, corn oil, vegetable oil)
 
Some market forms of fats and oils
1.
 Tallow - Animal fat from cattle or sheep
2.
Suet - Clear white, solid fat obtained from kidneys and loins of cattleand sheep
3.
Lard - fat derived from swine; highest quality lard is called
leaf lard
4.
Butter - A product of ripened cream is churned until the butterfatseparates from the buttermilk; contains at least 80% fat
5.
Margarine - Product made to resemble butter; emulsified cultured milkand fat (prerequisite: should not come from milk fat)
6.
Oils – from seeds (rapeseed, soybeans, etc.) and fruits (avocado,coconut, olive oil)
7.
Hydrogenated oil - plant oil that has undergone hydrogenation(
hydrogen atoms are introduced to the double bonds in MUFAand PUFA
)
8.
Winterized oil - Vegetable oil that has undergone winterizing (
processthat removes fatty acids in oils
)
9.
Refined oil - A process used to remove free fatty acids
Fat replacer:
any ingredient that replaces fat; it physically resembles fatand is used to replace fat in recipes
 Three main groups of fat replacers (based on its chemical structure):
1.
Carbohydrate-based : from cellulose, dextrins, fiber, gums & starches;could impart the texture, mouthfeel & opacity of fat; brand names:Avicel, Amylum, Opta, Kelcogel, Amalean
2.
Protein-based : from whey, egg proteins and corn proteins that areeither microparticulated or modified; Simplesse and Dairy-Lo
3.
Lipid-based : fat with chemically modified structures; Salatrim andOlestra
General characteristics of fats and oils:
1.Hydrophobic2.Less dense than water3.Absorbs odor and flavor
Properties of fats and oils:
1.
Melting Point
- Affected by ratio of saturated to unsaturated fattyacid, length of carbon chain, cis-trans configuration and size of crystals
2.
Smoke Point
- The temperature at which fats or oils begin to smoke;the presence of free fatty acid, previous heating, amount of surfacearea exposed and presence of fine food particles hasten the time of reaching the smoke point
* ACROLEIN
3.
Flash Point
- The temperature at which tiny wisps of fire streak to thesurface of a heated oil; use of fire extinguishers marked with B
4.
Fire Point
- The temperature at which a heated substance bursts intoflames and burns for at least 5 seconds
5.
Rancidity
- Chemical deterioration of fatsa.Hydrolytic Rancidity: lipase and heat
 
 b.
Oxidative Rancidity: oxygen, heat and metals (Cu, Ni, Fe)
c.
Preventing rancidity : (1) hydrogenation, (2) addition of antioxidants (vitamin C, E, BHA and BHT) and (3) proper storageof fats: cool and dark place, tightly covered
Uses of fats and oils in food preparation
:1.Shortening2.Medium of Heat Transfer3.Dressing4.Condiment
Fat as a medium for heat transfer:
Shallow frying (sautéing and stir-frying) : uses the least amount of fat;uses high temperature to cook foods easily and prevents escape of natural juices
Pan-Broiling (placing food in a very hot frying pan and pouring off fatas it accumulates) and Pan-Frying (uses moderate amount of fat - ½inch deep)
Deep frying : food is completely covered in fat; usually coated withbreading or batter
How is food cooked in deep frying?
Moisture Transfer
Fat Transfer
Crust Formation
Interior Cooking
Implications of fat absorption in fried foods
1.Affects palatability2.Affects digestibility3.Nutritive quality4.Cost
Factors affecting absorption
1.Cooking time2.Cooking temperature3.Surface area of the food exposed to oil/fat4.Composition of food
Pointers to remember in frying
1.
Choose fats suitable for frying: tasteless, odorless, neutral or colorlesswith a smoke point above 200
°
C2.Choose a suitable cooking utensil
3.
Fry at the recommended temperature (180 + 10
°
C; size and moisturecontent)
how to check if oil is hot: bubbles around the turner, water drop,use of bread cubes4.Strain the food particles from the fat before frying5.Fry only a small amount of food at a time

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