10.1177/0022022102239152JOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGYSpini / MEASUREMENT EQUIVALENCE OF VALUES
MEASUREMENT EQUIVALENCE OF 10 VALUE TYPES FROMTHE SCHWARTZ VALUE SURVEY ACROSS 21 COUNTRIES
Universities of Lausanne and Geneva
Equivalence of measurement across cultures is a prerequisite for the generalization of an instrument. Themeasurement equivalence of 10 value types derived from Schwartz’s structural model of values and mea-suredwiththeSchwartzValueSurveyquestionnaireisevaluatedin21countries.Basedonpreviousresearchby Schwartz and colleagues, the measurement equivalence of the 10 value types is tested separately usingnested multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Results indicate that it is possible for most value types toreachacceptablelevelsofconfiguralandmetricequivalence;onlythedimensionofHedonismisrejectedatthesetwolevelsofequivalence.Fourvaluetypes(Benevolence,Conformity,Self-Direction,andUniversal-ism)alsoshowfactorvarianceequivalence.Thehypothesesofscalarandreliabilityequivalencearerejectedfor all value types. Indications are also given of the number of items to be included for measuring the valuetypes at the different levels of equivalence.
ofcross-culturalresearch.However,psychologi-cal measures have no intrinsic properties warranting the assumption that they can be mea-sured in an equivalent manner across cultures. Equivalence of structure (number and rela-tionships among psychological constructs or latent variables) and measurement(relationshipsbetweenlatentvariablesandtheirindicators)havetobeconceivedatdifferentlevelssothatfactors,means,variances,orcovariancescanbecomparedindifferentsettings(Van de Vijver & Leung, 1997a). Unfortunately, researchers in cross-cultural psychologyoften compare means or correlations across cultural groups without testing the equivalenceof the constructs and measures. The major goal of this article is to provide a test of equiva-lence of an instrument that has been widely used in cross-cultural psychology, namely, theSchwartz Value Survey, and to provide an application of multigroup structural equationmodels(Bollen,1989b;Jöreskog,1971)inordertotestdifferentlevelsofequivalenceusingan international survey administrated to student populations living in 21 countries.
AUTHOR’SNOTE:Thedatapresentedherewerecollectedwiththehelpofthefollowingcolleagues,students,andfriends:DanielRoselli (Argentina), Velina Topalova (Bulgaria), Monica Herrera and Marguerite Lavallée (Canada), Victor Espinoza, IsabellKempf,andPabloSalvatBologna(Chile),DaniloPérezZumbado(CostaRica),YapoYapi(Côted’Ivoire),MaarisRaudsepp(Esto-nia),EvaGreen(Finland),JoaneCotassonandElenaLozano(France),JyotiVerma(India),EmdaOrrandYossiMana(Israel),LuisaCampanileandAnnamariaSilvanadeRosa(Italy),KazuhisaKobayashiandMasaakiOrii(Japan),AraceliOterodeAlba(Mexico),Cecilia Gastardo-Conaco (Philippines), Jorge Correia Jesuino (Portugal), Aliou Sall (Senegal), Alex Amati and William Onzivu(Uganda),GlynisBreakwell(UnitedKingdom),andGordanaJovanovic(Yugoslavia).Iammostgratefulfortheworktheyagreedtodo.ThisstudywassupportedfinanciallybytheSociétéAcadémiquedeGenève.PartsoftheanalyseswerecarriedoutduringavisittotheInstituteforResearchinSocialScience,UniversityofNorthCarolinaatChapelHill,duringwhichIbenefitedfromthesuper-visionofKennethBollen(underafellowshipfromtheSwissNationalScienceFoundationforyoungresearchers).MythanksgoalsotoShalomSchwartzandhiscollaboratorsforprovidingtheSchwartzValueSurveyinseverallanguagesandfortheircommentsonaprevious manuscript. Finally, the editorial assistance of Ian Hamilton was greatly appreciated, as were the thoughtful comments of PaoloGhisletta,oftwoanonymousreviewers,andthecriticalandencouragingfeedbackofFonsvandeVijverduringtheprocessof revision. Please address correspondence to Dario Spini, Institute for Life Course and Life Styles Studies, Bâtiment Provence, Uni-versity of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland; e-mail: Dario.Spini@pavie.unil.chJOURNAL OF CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY, Vol. 34 No. 1, January 2003 3-23DOI: 10.1177/0022022102239152© 2003 Western Washington University
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