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Ch 1 Introduction

Ch 1 Introduction

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Published by: api-3765936 on Nov 24, 2009
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Chapter 1

Heat transfer is the transfer of thermal energy from a system at a high temperature to one at lower temperature. It plays an important part in many aspects of engineering. In some cases the engineer requires a high rate of heat transfer through a small area with a low temperature difference, for example in the temperature control of electronic components; alternatively it may be desirable to maintain a temperature difference while maintaining a low rate of heat transfer, for example in the fabric of a building or where pipework carries hot or cold fluid. We will examine many examples of these applications and pay particular attention to the design and selection of heat exchangers \u2013 devices whose purpose is to facilitate the transfer of thermal energy from one fluid stream to another.

Most practical heat transfer problems require the engineer to make various assumptions and approximations. For hand calculations empirical correlations are widely used. These are relationships which may have some theoretical or conceptual basis but are underpinned by experimental results.

Heat transfer occurs by one of three mechanisms, or a combination of these
Conduction is the transfer of energy though a material without bulk motion. It is the
only mechanism of heat transfer in most solids, and occurs in fluids at rest and in the
layer of a fluid immediately adjacent to a solid surface.
Convection occurs in liquids and gases. Fluid at a high temperature physically moves

from one region to another, while cooler fluid replaces it. Energy is thus transferred from one region to another. We are primarily concerned with convection from a solid surface to the bulk of the fluid, or from a fluid to a solid wall.

The study of convection is subdivided: if the movement of the fluid is induced by a
blower, fan or pump then it is known as forced convection. Natural, or free,
convection occurs when the fluid movement is induced by temperature differences
within the fluid.
Boiling and condensation are special cases of convection.
Radiation: all surfaces above absolute zero emit electromagnetic radiation and

absorb radiation from other surfaces or the surroundings. In this way energy is transmitted from a body to another. Radiation does not rely on a medium and can occur in a vacuum, it is the only form of heat transfer which can occur in a vacuum.

All three modes of heat transfer may occur in one problem \u2013 either in series, as heat is transferred from a fluid to a solid and through the solid, or in parallel as heat is transferred from a hot body by both radiation and convection.

Heat Exchangers are thermal devices in which heat1 is exchanged from one fluid stream (or exceptionally a solid) to one or more other fluid streams. The term heat exchanger encompasses a range of devices which permit heat exchange to take place in one of four ways:

Heat transfer plays an important role in many engineering applications including:
i. Recuperative heat exchangers - hot and cold streams flow in close proximity but
are physically separated by a solid wall

ii. Regenerative heat exchangers - hot and cold streams flow alternately through a matrix which is heated by the passage of the hot fluid and releases heat to the cold fluid.

iii. Direct contact - two fluids are allowed to come into contact with each other and are then at least partially separated. If the temperatures of the fluids differ then energy will be transferred while the fluids are in contact. The most common application of this type of heat exchanger is the direct contact cooling tower.

iv. From a solid to a fluid -thermal energy may be liberated in a solid due to the passage of an electric current or a chemical or nuclear reaction. This energy may be dissipated to a passing fluid.

1 In the study of heat transfer we tend to be less rigorous in our terminology than thermodynamicists

- strictly heat is an interaction describing the energy transfer from one system to another due to a temperature difference, it is energy that is transferred. In heat transfer the terms heat and thermal energy are used interchangeably.


v. Through insulation: All materials will permit some heat transfer, however there are many applications in which it is undesirable, the engineer needs to be able to quantify the heat loss which will occur.

In this module we will be dealing principally with the theory which allows us to tackle
problems in I, iv and v above.
Some comments about temperature and other units:

Temperature may be given according to one of several scales. Two will be used in this module: The Celsius scale and the Absolute, or Kelvin, scale. The Celsius scale is based on two reference points; the freezing and boiling points of ware at normal atmospheric pressure are set at 0oC and 100oC, respectively. This is a convenient scale \u2013 many everyday processes occur within or close to this range. The Celsius scale is essentially arbitrary as far as thermodynamics is concerned, a fundamental measure of temperature based on absolute zero \u2013 the temperature at which atoms would have no kinetic energy and a perfect gas would have zero volume. Absolute zero, or 0 Kelvin may be expressed as -273.15oC. The unit of absolute temperature is the Kelvin, K, 1K has the same magnitude as 1oC. Therefore:

(Temperature K) = (TemperatureoC + 273.15)
TK = toC + 273.15

Upper caseT is traditionally used for absolute temperature and lower caset is used
for temperatures expressed in Celsius. (Some texts use other symbols for
temperature e.g.\u03b8)
Temperature measurements and many tables of properties are expressed as Celsius.
However, where temperature ratios are to be used or a temperature is to be raised
to a power, then it isessential that the absolute temperature is used. Either
temperature scale is acceptable when dealing with temperature differences and will
give the same numerical result.
Illustrative examples:
(a)A building is maintained at an internal environment of 21oC while the external
temperature is 4oC. What is the temperature difference across the building wall:

) (

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