The U.S. argued that its actions were "primarily for the benefit of El Salvador , and tohelp it to respond to an alleged armed attack by Nicaragua, that the United States claimsto be exercising a right of collective self-defense, which it regards as a justification of itsown conduct towards Nicaragua. El Salvador, joined the U.S. in their Declaration of Intervention which it submitted on 15 August 1984, where it alleged itself the victim of an armed attack by Nicaragua, and that it had asked the United States to exercise for its benefit the right of collective self-defence."TheCIA claimed that the purpose of the manual was to "moderate" activities already
being done by the Contras.
The United States argued that the Court did not have jurisdiction, with U.S. ambassador to theUnited Nations Jeane Kirkpatrick dismissing the Court as a "semi-legal, semi-
juridical, semi-political body, which nations sometimes accept and sometimes don't."
It is noteworthy that the United States, the defaulting party, was the only Member that putforward arguments against the validity of the judgment of the Court arguing that it has passed a decision that it `had neither the jurisdiction nor the competence to render'. Other Members who sided with the United States in opposing Nicaragua's claims, did notchallenge the Court's findings either as to its jurisdiction, or on the substantive merits of the case.
The very long judgment first listed 291 points. Among them that the United States had been involved in the "unlawful use of force". The alleged violations included attacks on Nicaraguan facilities and naval vessels, the mining of Nicaraguan ports, the invasion of Nicaraguan air space, and the training, arming, equipping, financing and supplying of forces (the "Contras") and seeking to overthrow Nicaragua's Sandinista government. Thiswas followed by the statements that the judges voted on.
3. 1. Findings
The court found evidence for an arms flow between Nicaragua and to the insurgents in ElSalvador in 1979-81. However, there was not enough evidence to show that the Nicaraguan government was imputable for this or that the US response was proportional.The court also found established that certain transborder incursions into the territory of Guatemala and Costa Rica, in 1982, 1983 and 1984, were imputable to the Governmentof Nicaragua. However, neither Guatemala and Costa Rica made any request for intervention by the US and El Salvador only in 1984, well after the US interventionstarted."As regards El Salvador, the Court considers that in customary international law the provision of arms to the opposition in another State does not constitute an armed attack on that State. As regards Honduras and Costa Rica, the Court states that, in the absence of sufficient information as to the transborder incursions into the territory of those two