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ASSIGNMENT on Code of Ethics

ASSIGNMENT on Code of Ethics

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Published by Rinta Moon
Pharmacist’s Code of Ethics
Ethics in Pharmaceutical Issues
1. Pharmacist in different clusters with different ethical issues
1.1 Ethical issues in clinical pharmacy practice
1.1.1 Patients pharmaceutical care
1.1.2 Interaction with other medical professionals
1.2 Ethical issues in community pharmacy practice
1.2.1 Dispensing of drugs
1.2.2 Prescribing of Pharmacy Only Medicines (POM)
1.2.3 Patients’ drug consultations
1.2.4 Extemporaneous pharmaceutical preparations
1.2.4.1 Assuring quality in extemporaneous preparations
1.2.4.2 Stability issues of extemporaneous preparations
1.3 Ethical Issues in manufacturing of pharmaceutical products
1.3.1 Quality assurance in pharmaceutical manufacturing
1.3.2 Good manufacturing practice
1.3.3 Good storage practice and good distribution practice
1.3.4 Ethics of pharmacists in handling product complaints and product recalls
1.4 Ethical issues in research and clinical trials
2. Ethical marketing of pharmaceutical products
3. Ethics in intellectual property
Pharmacist’s Code of Ethics
Ethics in Pharmaceutical Issues
1. Pharmacist in different clusters with different ethical issues
1.1 Ethical issues in clinical pharmacy practice
1.1.1 Patients pharmaceutical care
1.1.2 Interaction with other medical professionals
1.2 Ethical issues in community pharmacy practice
1.2.1 Dispensing of drugs
1.2.2 Prescribing of Pharmacy Only Medicines (POM)
1.2.3 Patients’ drug consultations
1.2.4 Extemporaneous pharmaceutical preparations
1.2.4.1 Assuring quality in extemporaneous preparations
1.2.4.2 Stability issues of extemporaneous preparations
1.3 Ethical Issues in manufacturing of pharmaceutical products
1.3.1 Quality assurance in pharmaceutical manufacturing
1.3.2 Good manufacturing practice
1.3.3 Good storage practice and good distribution practice
1.3.4 Ethics of pharmacists in handling product complaints and product recalls
1.4 Ethical issues in research and clinical trials
2. Ethical marketing of pharmaceutical products
3. Ethics in intellectual property

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Published by: Rinta Moon on Jun 21, 2014
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1
ASSIGNMENT ON
Pharmacist’s ode of Ethics
 
Course name: Pharmacy Law and Ethics Course code: PHRM 410
SUBMITTED TO:
Meena Afroze Shanta Lecturer 
 
Department of Pharmacy East West University
SUBMITTED BY:
 
Fariza Huq Oishi (ID: 2010-1-70-008) Sadia Siddique (ID: 2010-1-70-009) Tasnim Tabassum (ID: 2010-1-70-010) Zenifar Karim (ID: 2010-1-70-042) Debasree Paul (ID: 2010-3-70-036) Samiya Khondaker Rinta (ID: 2010-3-70-048)
Submission date: 20
th
 February, 2014
 
2
Pharmacist’s Code of Ethics
 
“Pharmacist Code of Ethics”
 is a guideline to the pharmacist in their relationship with the  patients, fellow practitioners and other health professionals and the public.
Ethics in Pharmaceutical Issues
1. Pharmacist in different clusters with different ethical issues 1.1 Ethical issues in clinical pharmacy practice 1.1.1 Patients pharmaceutical care
Pharmaceutical care is the current practice in pharmacy. Here pharmacists are responsible in view of drug therapy for the purpose of achieving best outcomes that promote a patient's quality of life. Clearly there are ethical issues in this new development and some of these issues include
 
 patient confidentiality and privacy,
 
 patient autonomy,
 
duty to warn,
 
competencies in deciding the best medication to be procured.
1.1.2 Interaction with other medical professionals
In clinical practice pharmacist have to work with nurses, doctors and other medical  professionals. They are required to give advice on the latest medications, drug substitution, drug costing and everything to do with drugs or related devices. Pharmacists may not get to interact directly with the patients but they may accompany physicians and nurses on ward rounds to see patients. Here pharmacist should assist the other professionals in a proper ethical manner and should not to comment on short comings involving other  professionals on the therapy. Sometimes it is difficult to balance the two and pharmacists should handle such matters
 
 professionally.
1.2 Ethical issues in community pharmacy practice 1.2.1 Dispensing of drugs
Pharmacists should dispense a drug professionally and with it also give the following information: 1.
 
drugs in use or new drugs, 2.
 
information on side effects, 3.
 
drug interactions with other drugs or with food, 4.
 
recommendations on drug administration for unique situations (e.g. renal failure), 5.
 
information regarding appropriate drug dosage based on various factors (e.g. renal clearance, weight),
 
3
6.
 
information on national drug registration, 7.
 
information on administration of drugs, 8.
 
warnings, precautions and contraindications
 
of drugs, 9.
 
storage conditions and stability of drugs. It is specified in the many national pharmacy laws that a pharmacist can refuse to dispense, if in the pharmacist's professional judgment, the prescription does not seem to be valid, or if filling the prescription as written could cause inadvertent harm to the patient. The basis of a
"pharmacist's professional judgment" will be based on the pharmacists’ knowledge of 
 the safety of the drug where ethically pharmacist should not allow hazard to the patient's health and welfare or anything which might result in suffering. The question is whether a pharmacist has the right to refuse to dispense based on personal  beliefs. An example could be whether a Muslim pharmacist can refuse to dispense products derived from pork. As a human being, a pharmacist also has freedom of speech. But in emergency cases if there is no substitute pork material can be used by Muslims. Another question is whether it is ethical to dispense a substitute based on religious beliefs.
1.2.2 Prescribing of Pharmacy Only Medicines (POM)
In certain nations, based on the classification of certain drugs, pharmacist can dispense without a
doctor’s prescription or indirectly the public can
directly buy over the counter medicinal  preparations from pharmacist. Such sales should be in accordance with the authority guidelines so that public safety is ensured and so it involves ethical practice by pharmacist. For example in some countries certain drug like oral contraceptives (OCs) are being sold without  prescription by pharmacists. In such cases the pharmacist has to put forward a strong ethical control so that OCs are not simply sold to youngster. This requires judgment from pharmacists so that public safety is ensured and drug abuse is being avoided.
1
.2.3 Patients’ drug consultations
 
As professionals pharmacists are expected to be very knowledgeable on drugs and to give drug consultations to the public in an ethical way. In drug consultation patients are advised on 1.
 
drug selection, 2.
 
drug dosage, 3.
 
understanding drug effects and side effects 4.
 
interaction of drugs with other drugs or with food. This consultation can also include advice on general health information, management of certain conditions, diet and exercise. In some nations, an area is allocated for patient counseling and drug information in the layout of a community pharmacy. These drug consultations are globally accepted to be free.

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