PERSPECTIVES IN TRANSPORTATION GEOGRAPHY
(continued from page ii) brought about the desired redirection of the field. The essay by Hurst, contained in this volume, calls for a new reassessment, which should generate considerable debate. It is the purpose of this introductory note to make a brief methodological comment upon the nature of transportation eography and to point up related societal and policy implications. An overview of the papers in this volume provides a useful perspective for integrating the spatial study of trans- portation with societal inputs and impacts. Therefore, the thrust of this issue is a con- tinuation of the effort begun at a special session devoted to Social Perspectives in Transportation Geography, held at the Kansas City meeting of the Association of American Geographers, April, 1972. Five of the papers in this volume grew out of that special session; three were solicited for this issue.
THE NATURE OF TRANSPORTATION GEOGRAPHY
The present discussion of transportation geography is an articulation and extension of my earlier framework. t leads directly to the role of societal and policy perspectives which the papers in this issue address. Berry, through use of a geographic ma- trix, demonstrated conceptual approaches to spatial analysis. He began by identifying disciplines, not so much by the phenomena they study, as by the integrating concepts and processes that they stress [4, p. 2]. Thus, disciplines focus upon particular sys- tems and their sets of interdependent propo- sitions. As a discipline takes form, recogni- tion of a system may emerge slowly, as am- biguous concepts are sharpened and related to better understood concepts and princi- ples, as theories are developed and tested, and as paradigms are put forth to explore new perspectives. The integrating concepts and processes of a system of knowledge aid the understanding of aspects of man's ex-
The argument Berry followed to define and synthesize the discipline of geography may logically be used with any subdisci- pline within the field. Likewise, his matrix may be viewed entirely within the context of one subdiscipline, transportation geog- raphy. Variables measuring characteristics of transportation and movement are identi- fied by points or areas for a given time di- mension. Each of the ten approaches to regional analysis outlined by Berry also ap- plies to transportation geography. For example, if we let the rows in the matrix represent places (or observations) and the columns transportation ariables, an analysis of a column or columns leads to studies of spatial distributions and associations in transportation. Examination of a row or rows results, respectively, in the association of transportation ariables at one place and in areal differentiation. Historical spatial studies of transportation variables are pos- sible by analysis of a series of matrices each representing past time slices, with possible emphasis on either rows or columns. Essentially, however, Berry's geographic matrix views the spatial features of the transportation system only at the level of static structure. It says nothing at all about the second level of interconnections across areas, connectivity of places, flows and in- teractions [4, p. 10]. This second level requires a modification of the original ma- trix, in which places appear both as rows and columns. We have then the familiar origin-destination matrix, also called the in- teraction or flow matrix. The cells of the matrix may reveal connections or lack of connections between places (connectivity or adjacency matrix) or may contain data regarding the magnitude of interaction be- tween origins and destinations. Obviously, the time dimension may be included, by considering additional matrices for other time slices. Just as the geographic matrix contains mappable data, so too does the interaction matrix. To more explicitly relate Berry's matrix to the subdiscipline of transportation geog- raphy, one may basically regard it as a view of the spatial structure of transportation. The interaction matrix, on the other hand, relates more clearly to spatial interaction analysis. Studies combining the concept of spatial structure with interaction ead to an understanding of spatial organization, or the explanation of the interdependence be- tween the structure of space and the inter- actions across space. Central place theory, for example, has provided one view of the spatial organization of the economy by re- lating the spatial structure of central places to the spatial interactions of consumers. The two basic components in spatial in- teraction may be conceptualized as the 181