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IN SEARCH OF INERTIAL FRAMES

# IN SEARCH OF INERTIAL FRAMES

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10/01/2014

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IN SEARCH OF INERTIAL FRAMES
D T YARBROUGH

IN SEARCH OF INERTIAL FRAMES
Inertial Frame of Reference
In physics, an inertial frame of reference (also inertial reference frame or inertial frame or Galileanreference frame or inertial space) is a frame of reference that describes time and space homogeneously,isotropically, and in a time-independent manner.All inertial frames are in a state of constant, rectilinear motion with respect to one another; anaccelerometer moving with any of them would detect ero acceleration. !easurements in one inertialframe can be converted to measurements in another by a simple transformation (the Galileantransformation in "ewtonian physics and the #orent transformation in special relativity). In generalrelativity, in any region small enough for the curvature of spacetime to be negligible, one can find a setof inertial frames that appro\$imately describe that region.%hysical laws ta&e the same form in all inertial frames. 'y contrast, in a non-inertial reference framethe laws of physics vary depending on the acceleration of that frame with respect to an inertial frame,and the usual physical forces must be supplemented by fictitious forces. or e\$ample, a ball droppedtowards the ground does not go e\$actly straight down because the arth is rotating. *omeone rotatingwith the arth must account for the +oriolis effectin this case thought of as a forceto predict thehoriontal motion. Another e\$ample of such a fictitious force associated with rotating reference framesis the centrifugal effect, or centrifugal force.
Introduction
he motion of a body can only be described relative to something else - other bodies, observers, or aset of space-time coordinates. hese are called frames of reference. If the coordinates are chosen badly,the laws of motion may be more comple\$ than necessary. or e\$ample, suppose a free body (onehaving no e\$ternal forces on it) is at rest at some instant. In many coordinate systems, it would begin tomove at the ne\$t instant, even though there are no forces on it. owever, a frame of reference canalways be chosen in which it remains stationary. *imilarly, if space is not described uniformly or timeindependently, a coordinate system could describe the simple flight of a free body in space as acomplicated ig-ag in its coordinate system. Indeed, an intuitive summary of inertial frames can begiven as/ In an inertial reference frame, the laws of mechanics ta&e their simplest form.In an inertial frame, "ewton0s first law (the
law of inertia
) is satisfied/ Any free motion has a constantmagnitude and direction.or more info refer to http/11en.wi&ipedia.org1wi&i1Inertial2frame2of2reference
Inertial Frame of Reference
In "ewtonian physics and special relativity, an inertial frame of reference (or Galilean reference frame)is a frame of reference in which "ewton0s first law of motion applies/ an ob3ect moves at a constantvelocity unless acted on by an e\$ternal force. All inertial frames are in a state of constant, rectilinear motion with respect to one another; they are not accelerating (in the sense of proper acceleration thatwould be detected by an accelerometer). !easurements in one inertial frame can be converted tomeasurements in another by a simple transformation (the Galilean transformation in "ewtonian physicsand the #orent transformation in special relativity). In general relativity, an inertial reference frame isonly an appro\$imation that applies in a region that is small enough for the curvature of space to benegligible. %hysical laws ta&e the same form in all inertial frames. In a non-inertial reference frame the laws of

physics depend upon the particular frame of reference, and the usual physical forces must besupplemented by fictitious forces. or e\$ample, a ball dropped towards the ground does not go e\$actlystraight down because the arth is rotating. *omeone rotating with the arth must include the +oriolisforce to predict the horiontal motion. Another e\$ample of a fictitious force associated with rotatingreference frames is the centrifugal force.or more info refer to http/11www.princeton.edu14achaney1tmve1wi&i566&1docs1Inertial2frame2of2reference.html
Problem with inertial frame!
wo inertial frames are not inertial relative to each other unless their inertial motion can be traced bac& to a common point at a common time. 7bviously two ob3ects can0t occupy the same place at the same time, but the closer the better if they are to be considered somewhat inertial to each other. 7therwise the two frames must travel at the same velocity. "either can be stationary unless both are. If either accelerated or decelerated or did so at a different rate proportional to velocity than the other prior to  becoming inertial, then all bets are off unless their inertial speeds match.Individual velocities of inertial frames can not be added or subtracted with the instein 8elocityAddition ormula or even simple addition without ta&ing their relative angles of motion intoconsideration. *9 says they have to be in constant motion relative to each other. hey are not unlessthey satisfy the first condition stated above.or those who might consider orbital motion as inertial motion relative to a center of gravity, consider that any orbit, not e\$actly circular, will involve continous acceleration and deceleration along withincrease and decrease in distance between the frames.Accelerated relative motion between two non-accelerating frames will not be detectable with anaccelerometer nor will acceleration or deceleration due to gravitational forces.:irection of motions determine the error while direction of motion does not affect the amount of timedilation. :istance contraction, if it e\$ists, is related to the direction of travel. owever, the distanceerror we are spee&ing of is not along the path of either frame, but in the relative distance between theframes.If it is stric&ly relative motion that creates time dilation, why doesn0t relative acceleration creategravitational forces. Also, the amount of time dilation would partially depend on the motion of theother frame. hat if you decided to observe a third frame with different motion. :oes you cloc&0sspeed depend on which frame you observe<If an inertial frame is only inertial if it is inertial relative to another inertial frame, then there e\$istsvirtually no such frame.If light is to be considered inertial, you must ignore any gravitational lensing or refraction inde\$. venthen it is only inertial relative to other photons whose speeds are identical and directions are constant.his relative speed is limited to =c.It seems there are no relative frames in which *9 laws hold good.