IN SEARCH OF INERTIAL FRAMES
Inertial Frame of Reference
In physics, an inertial frame of reference (also inertial reference frame or inertial frame or Galileanreference frame or inertial space) is a frame of reference that describes time and space homogeneously,isotropically, and in a time-independent manner.All inertial frames are in a state of constant, rectilinear motion with respect to one another; anaccelerometer moving with any of them would detect ero acceleration. !easurements in one inertialframe can be converted to measurements in another by a simple transformation (the Galileantransformation in "ewtonian physics and the #orent transformation in special relativity). In generalrelativity, in any region small enough for the curvature of spacetime to be negligible, one can find a setof inertial frames that appro$imately describe that region.%hysical laws ta&e the same form in all inertial frames. 'y contrast, in a non-inertial reference framethe laws of physics vary depending on the acceleration of that frame with respect to an inertial frame,and the usual physical forces must be supplemented by fictitious forces. or e$ample, a ball droppedtowards the ground does not go e$actly straight down because the arth is rotating. *omeone rotatingwith the arth must account for the +oriolis effectin this case thought of as a forceto predict thehoriontal motion. Another e$ample of such a fictitious force associated with rotating reference framesis the centrifugal effect, or centrifugal force.
he motion of a body can only be described relative to something else - other bodies, observers, or aset of space-time coordinates. hese are called frames of reference. If the coordinates are chosen badly,the laws of motion may be more comple$ than necessary. or e$ample, suppose a free body (onehaving no e$ternal forces on it) is at rest at some instant. In many coordinate systems, it would begin tomove at the ne$t instant, even though there are no forces on it. owever, a frame of reference canalways be chosen in which it remains stationary. *imilarly, if space is not described uniformly or timeindependently, a coordinate system could describe the simple flight of a free body in space as acomplicated ig-ag in its coordinate system. Indeed, an intuitive summary of inertial frames can begiven as/ In an inertial reference frame, the laws of mechanics ta&e their simplest form.In an inertial frame, "ewton0s first law (the
law of inertia
Inertial Frame of Reference
In "ewtonian physics and special relativity, an inertial frame of reference (or Galilean reference frame)is a frame of reference in which "ewton0s first law of motion applies/ an ob3ect moves at a constantvelocity unless acted on by an e$ternal force. All inertial frames are in a state of constant, rectilinear motion with respect to one another; they are not accelerating (in the sense of proper acceleration thatwould be detected by an accelerometer). !easurements in one inertial frame can be converted tomeasurements in another by a simple transformation (the Galilean transformation in "ewtonian physicsand the #orent transformation in special relativity). In general relativity, an inertial reference frame isonly an appro$imation that applies in a region that is small enough for the curvature of space to benegligible. %hysical laws ta&e the same form in all inertial frames. In a non-inertial reference frame the laws of