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England

England

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Published by zabolotnyi61
A reading and conversational topic for the 7th year school students of ESL. Tells about England as the largest part of the UK.
A reading and conversational topic for the 7th year school students of ESL. Tells about England as the largest part of the UK.

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Published by: zabolotnyi61 on Mar 19, 2008
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09/22/2010

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England
By O. Zabolotnyi
England is the largest, the richest, the most industrialized, and the most denselypopulated part of the United Kingdom. Over 46 million people live there.
 
 Above Left:
St. George’s Cross on the Flag of 
 Above Centre:
 England is the best-recognizable symbol. Coat of Arms of England. 
 Above Right:
The “Tudor Rose” is the floral symbol of England. It combines the Red Rose of theHouse of Lancaster with the White one of the House of York. This way both rivals who claimed thethrone between 1455 and 1485 are peacefully represented by this symbol.
 
 The coasts of England are washed by the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the English Channeland the Strait of Dover. It is a well-known fact that the sea has always been importantfor the country. It was a good protection against the attacks of other nations, itinfluences the climate, it has made fishing an important industry, and it has madeEnglishmen the world’s finest sailors.England has many rivers. The longest is the Severn (388 km), but the Thames (354 km)is the most important as it flows through the capital city of London, which is also a majorsea port.England is a flat country. Most of the plains lie to the east, while the west is hilly andmountainous. However, the mountains are not very high. The territory is divided intothree main parts: Northern England, Midlands and Southern England.
Southern England
is famous for its ruralbeauty. The county of Kent is known as “thegarden of England” due to the many fruit andvegetables grown here. The warmest climate of the seaside suggested developing of suchprominent sea resorts as, for example Brightonand Bournemouth. The south-west peninsula,with its rocky coast, is the most popular holidayarea in Britain. The biggest city here is Bristol,which once was Britain’s second-important portafter London. East Anglia to the north-east of London is also flat. It has the driest climate onthe British Isles, so they grow wheat and other arable crops there.
 Above:
Arundel Castle, Sussex 
 
The Midlands
became the country’s engineering centre during the IndustrialRevolution. Most of the important industrial cities are located here. Birmingham and thesurrounding area of the West Midlands were called the Black Country because of black(ferrous) metallurgy factories concentrated there.Page 2. 
Left:
The Black Country in 1869.
 The towns between the Black Country andManchester are known as The Potteries. Wedgewood,Spode and Minton are famous worldwide forproducing china.
Right:
 A fine sample of Wedgewood china – acommemorative plate
. There are other notable industrial towns in the EastMidlands, such as Derby, Leicester and Nottingham.Although the Midlands do not create many positiveassociations in people’s minds because of their industrialbackground, tourism flourishes in ‘Shakespeare Country’ (centered in Stratford-upon-Avon, which is believed to be Shakespeare’s birthplace), and in Nottingham, which isfamous for its connection with legendary Robin Hood.
Right:
The statue of legendary Robin Hood inNottingham.
Below:
Shakespeare’s boyhood house in Stratford-upon-Avon.
 
Left:
 
The cottage of Ann Hathaway, whom WilliamShakespeare married, Stratford-upon-Avon.
Northern England
is another major industrialarea of England. The Pennine Mountains divideNorthern England into two halves. On either side,the large deposits of coal and iron ore enabledthese areas to lead the Industrial Revolution inthe 18
th
century. On the western side, the
 
Manchester area connected to the port of Liverpool by canal became in the 19
th
centurythe world’s leading producer of cotton goods. On the eastern side, such towns asBradford and Leeds approximately the same time became famous for producing woolengoods. Further south Sheffield became a centre for production of steel. To the north,around Newcastle, shipbuilding and coal-mining were the main industries.Page 3.However, the decline in Europe’s heavy industry in the second half of the 20
th
century hitthe industrial north of England hard. For a long time this region had a level of unemployment significantly above the national average.
Right:
Lake Windermere, the largest lakein England in the heart of the Lake District.
Away from the main industrial areas, thenorth of England is sparsely populated. Inthe north-western part of the country thefamous Lake District is located. It is one of the most beautiful places on the planet,combining the attractiveness of numerouslakes and mountains, the highest peak inEngland – Scaffel-Pike (978 m) amongthem. The romantic poets of the nineteenthcentury, Wordsworth, Coleridge andSouthey (the ‘Lake Poets’), lived here anddescribed the beauty of the area in theirimmortal verses.
‘I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high o’er vales and hills,When all at once I saw a crowd, A host of golden daffodils,Beside the lake, beneath the trees,Fluttering and dancing in the breeze…’ By 
William Wordsworth
(1770 – 1850)
Right:
Portrait of William Wordsworth, one of ‘the Lake Poets’.
 

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