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Examples of Intelligence Tests

Examples of Intelligence Tests

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Examples of Intelligence Tests
1. Stanford-Binet IQ test
The modern field of intelligence testing began with the
Stanford-Binet IQ test
. The Stanford-Binet itself started with the
Alfred Binet
as a standard way for psychologists to quickly andeasily compare the psychological functioning of different people. As Binetindicated, case studies may be more detailed and at times more helpful, butthe time required to test large numbers of people would be huge.Unfortunately, the tests he and his assistant Victor Henri developed in 1896were largely disappointing (Fancher, 1985).Later on, Binet worked with physician
Theodore Simon
on theproblem of retardation in French school children. Between 1905 and 1908,their research at a school for boys in Grange-aux-Belles, France led to thedevelopment of the
Binet-Simon tests
. Employing questions of increasingdifficulty, this test measured such things as attention, memory, and verbalskills. Binet cautioned people that these scores should not be taken tooliterally because of the plasticity of intelligence and the inherent margin of error in the test (Fancher, 1985).In 1916,
Lewis Terman
released the "StanfordRevision of the Binet-Simon Scale" or the "
" for short. Withthe help of several graduate students and validation experiments, heremoved several of the Binet-Simon test items and added completely newones. The test soon became so popular that Robert Yerkes, the president of the American Psychological Association, decided to use the test to developthe Army Alpha and Army Beta tests, which helped classify recruits. Thus, ahigh-scoring individual would get a grade of A (high officer material),whereas a low-scoring individual would get a grade of E and be rejected(Fancher, 1985).Since the Stanford-Binet got its name, it has been revised severaltimes to give us the current
Stanford-Binet 5
. According to the publisher'swebsite, "The
was normed on a stratified random sample of 4,800individuals that matches the 2000 U.S. Census. Bias reviews were conductedon all items for gender, ethnic, cultural/religious, regional, andsocioeconomic status issues.Validity data was obtained using such instruments as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition, the Stanford-Binet Form L-M, theWoodcock-Johnson® III, the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence TestTM, theBender®-Gestalt, the
®-III, the
®-II, the
-III®, and the
-R®." Low variation on individuals tested multiple times indicates thetest has high reliability. It features Fluid Reasoning, Knowledge, QuantitativeReasoning, Visual-Spatial Processing, and Working Memory as the 5 factorstested. Each of these factors is tested in two separate domains, verbal and
nonverbal, in order to accurately assess individuals with deafness, limitedEnglish, or communication disorders. Examples of test items include verbalanalogies to test Verbal Fluid Reasoning and picture absurdities to testNonverbal Knowledge. In conclusion, the test makers assure people theStanford-Binet 5 will accurately assess low-end functioning, normalintelligence, and the highest levels of giftedness (Riverside Publishing, 2004).Despite this recent revision, some controversy remains as to the accuracyand bias of this test; however, many psychologists believe the evidenceavailable shows that the Stanford-Binet test is valid, and it remains a popularassessment of intelligence.
Students with exceptional scores on this test may be deemed bright, moderatelygifted, highly gifted, extremely gifted, or profoundly gifted.
The Stanford Binet IQ Test is designed to test intelligence in four areas includingverbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, abstract and visual reasoning, andshort-term memory skills. The Stanford Binet also scores 15 subtests including:
verbal absurdities
pattern analysis
paper folding and cutting
number series
equation building
memory for sentences
memory for digits
memory for objects
bead memory
Those planning on taking The Stanford Binet IQ Test will take anadditional vocabulary test, which along with the subject's age, determinesthe number and level of subtests to be administered. Total testing time is
45-90 minutes
, depending on the subject's age and the number of subtests given. Raw scores are based on the number of items answered,and are converted into a standard age score corresponding to age group,similar to an IQ Score.The Stanford Binet IQ Test combines features of earlier editions of theStanford-Binet Intelligence Scale with recent improvements inpsychometric design. Point-scale format subtests, designed to measurebehavior at every age, and used in the 1986 edition are combined withthe age-scale or functional-level design of the earlier editions. Two routingsubtests identify the developmental starting points of the examinee, and
the items can be tailored to cognitive level, resulting in greater precisionin measurement. The
Stanford-Binet IQ Test now
five factors
,(Fluid Reasoning, Knowledge, Quantitative Reasoning, Visual-SpatialProcessing, and Working Memory) as opposed to the four of the previousedition of the 1st Stanford Binet IQ Test.This edition of the Stanford Binet IQ Test allows for evaluation of theabilities of elderly examinees. The test is for children ages 2 throughadults.
Wechsler Intelligence Scales
are a series of standardized testsused to evaluate cognitive abilities and intellectual abilities in children andadults.
Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children
(regular, revised,and third edition) and
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
are used as tools in school placement, in determining thepresence of a learning disability or a developmental delay, in identifyinggiftedness, and in tracking intellectual development.The
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales
(regular and revised) are used todetermine vocational ability, to assess adult intellectual ability in theclassroom, and to determine organic deficits. Both adult and children'sWechsler scales are often included in neuropsychological testing to assessthe brain function of individuals with neurological impairments.
Intelligence testing requires a clinically trained examiner. The Wechslerscales should be administered, scored, and interpreted by a trainedprofessional, preferably a psychologist or psychiatrist.
All of the Wechsler scales are divided into six verbal and five performancesubtests. The complete test takes 60-90 minutes to administer. Verbal andPerformance IQs are scored based on the results of the testing, and then acomposite Full Scale IQ score is computed. Although earlier editions of someof the Wechsler Scales are still available, the latest revisions are describedbelow:

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