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Characterization of Heterogeneity of the Shajara Reservoirs of the Shajara Formation of the Permo-Carboniferous

Characterization of Heterogeneity of the Shajara Reservoirs of the Shajara Formation of the Permo-Carboniferous

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Published by Khalid Al-Khidir

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Published by: Khalid Al-Khidir on Jun 23, 2014
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ORIGINAL PAPER 
Characterization of heterogeneity of the Shajara reservoirsof the Shajara formation of the Permo-CarboniferousUnayzah group
K. E. Al-Khidir
 &
 M. S. Benzagouta
 &
 A. A. Al-Qurishi
 &
A. A. Al-Laboun
Received: 8 January 2012 /Accepted: 10 August 2012 /Published online: 7 September 2012
#
Saudi Society for Geosciences 2012
Abstract
 Representative sandstone samples were collectedfrom the surface-type section of the Shajara Formation of the Permo-Carboniferous Unayzah Group for reservoir char-acterization through fractal dimension investigation. Twomodels based on mercury intrusion technique wereemployed to represent the pores characteristics of thesesandstones. The results show that realistic dimensions andoutstanding fractal features of porous structures in Shajara sandstones, when these materials are correlated by thermo-dynamic model and 3-D fractal model of mercury intrusion.On the basis of sub-Unayzah unconformity, sub-MiddleShajara local unconformity, mudstone of the Middle Shajara and sub-Khuff unconformity, the three porous and perme-able sandstone units of Shajara Formation were treatedseparately and classified here into three fractal dimensionunits. The units from base to top are: Lower Shajara FractalDimension Unit, Middle Shajara Fractal Dimension Unit,and Upper Shajara Fractal Dimension Unit. The thermody-namic model and 3-D fractal model were effectively used tocharacterize the porous structures of Shajara sandstones inlogical and quantitative way.
Keywords
 Heterogeneity .Shajaraformation .Shajara fractal dimensionunits .Permeability
Introduction
The Unayzah Formation is hydrocarbon bearing in many oiland gas fields in Saudi Arabia. It is composed of continentalsiliciclastics of Permo-Carboniferous age. The formationwas formally defined by Al-Laboun (1987).Lithologically, the clastic surface type section of theShajara Formation of the Permo-Carboniferous UnayzahGroup, that is exposed at Ash Shajara, Qusayba area, AlQassim district, Saudi Arabia, is classified into three mem- bers: Lower Shajara Member, Middle Shajara Member, andUpper Shajara Member (Al-Khidir  2007; Fig. 1). Local unconformities were recognized within the Shajara Forma-tion indicating minor stratigraphic break in sedimentation.These local unconformities were interpreted as braided fluvialchannels. The clastic sequence starts with a red, porous, permeable sandstone deposited unconformably on the EarlyDevonian Tawail Formation.Ontheotherhand,theMiddleShajaraMemberisseparatedfrom the Lower Shajara Member by a local unconformity.Furthermore, a caliche surface (sub-Khuff unconformity) sep-arates the Upper Shajara Member from the overlying HuqaylMember of the Permo
 – 
Triassic Khuff Formation. Stronglyspeaking,the sub-Unayzahunconformity,sub-MiddleShajara unconformity, mudstone of the Middle Shajara Member, and
K. E. Al-Khidir (
*
)
:
M. S. Benzagouta College of Engineering, Al Amoudi Research Chair in Petroleum,EOR, Department of Petroleum Engineering and Natural Gas,King Saud University,Riyadh, Saudi Arabia e-mail: kalkhidir@ksu.edu.sa M. S. Benzagouta e-mail: benz@ksu.edu.sa A. A. Al-QurishiPetroleum and Natural Gas Research Institute,King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology,Riyadh, Saudi Arabia e-mail: aqurishi@kacst.edu.sa A. A. Al-LabounCollege of Science Department of Geology, King Saud University,Riyadh, Saudi Arabia e-mail: ibnlaboun@yahoo.comArab J Geosci (2013) 6:3989
 – 
3995DOI 10.1007/s12517-012-0656-9
 
sub-Khuff unconformity represent the backbone to classifythe Shajara Formation into three lithological units.From the Petrophysical point of view, the sandstones of the Shajara Formation were divided into three porous and permeable zones: Lower Shajara Permeable Zone, MiddleShajara Permeable Zone, and Upper Shajara PermeableZone (Al-Khidir  2007). Therefore, the three permeablezones represent the backbone to study the fractal dimensionsof the porous structures of Shajara sandstones using mercuryintrusion technique with certain degree of accuracy.
Methodology and experimental work 
Two models were used to characterize the fractal dimen-sions of the sandstones of the Shajara Formation. Thesemodelsare:thermodynamic and 3-D fractal model ofmercuryintrusion technique using autopore III. The term fractal wasfirst introduced by Mandelbrot (1977). It is defined as a material that changes in size but not in geometrical shapes.An important property of a fractal is self-similarity, whichreferstoa characteristicofa formexhibitedwhensubstructure
Fig. 1
 Surface type section of the Shajara Formation of thePermo-Carboniferous UnayzahGroup, showing the threefractal dimension units, N 26° 52 17.4, E 43° 36 18;Al-Khidir et al. (2012)3990 Arab J Geosci (2013) 6:3989
 – 
3995
 
resembles a superstructure in the same form. The fractaldimension is used to study heterogeneity of a system. Thegreater the fractal dimension, the greater the heterogeneoussystem. Many authors have studied the fractal dimension,among them Katz and Thompson (1985), Friesen and Mikula (1987), Hansen and Skjeltrop (1988), Krohn (1988), Lenormand (1990), Angulo and Gonzalez (1992), Toledo et  al. (1993), Shen and Li (1994, 1995), Li and Horne (2003), Li (2004), and Kewen (2004). Mercury intrusion method was used on samples representing the investigated area. This wasdonebyinjectingmercuryunderpressureusingMicromeriticsAutopore111.Theoutputofthisexperimentisconstructionof capillary pressure curve as a function of mercury saturation.The capillary pressuredatawas thenused to calculate the poreradius using Washburn's equation.
¼
2
σ 
cos
θ
 
c
=
 ð
1
Þ
 Pore radius in meter (m)
σ 
 Mercury interfacial tension in Neuton per meter (0.485 N/m)
θ
 Mercury contact angle measured in degrees (130°)
 P 
c
 Capillary pressure in Neuton per square meter (N/m
2
)With special reference to the thermodynamic model, log-arithm of work done divided by the square of the pore radiuswas plotted versus the logarithm of pore volume divided bythe pore radius, and the value of the slope of the straight lineis equivalent to the fractal dimension (
 D
). The thermody-namic model equation is given below:Log
 
c
v
^2
=
ð Þ¼
 D
 
Log
 
^0
:
3
 
=
ð Þþ
c
 ð
2
Þ
For the 3-D fractal model, the logarithm of mercurysaturation divided by average capillary pressure was plottedversus logarithm of capillary pressure. and the slope wasdetermined from the straight line and its value was added to4 to give the fractal dimension (
 D
).Log
 dS 
Hg
 dP 
c
=
 Þ¼ð
 D
 
4
Þ
Log
 P 
c
 ð
3
Þ
Results and discussion
The results of fractal dimensions of the porous structures insandstones of the Shajara Formation of the Permo-Carboniferous Unayzah Group were shown in Table 1 Threefractal dimension units were identified depending on ther-modynamic model and 3-D fractal model of mercury intru-sion technique. These fractal dimension units are: Lower Shajara Fractal Dimension Unit, Middle Shajara FractalDimension Unit, and Upper Shajara Fractal DimensionUnit.Concerning the Lower Shajara Fractal Dimension Unit, it is represented by two sequences, namely lower and upper (Fig. 1). The lower sequence is illustrated by three samples,SJ1, SJ2, and SJ3 as shown in Fig. 1. Sample SJ1 isdescribed as medium-grained, moderately well-sorted, po-rous, friable, red sandstone as shown in Fig. 1. The result of thermodynamic model of sample SJ1 is demonstrated inFig. 2 and Table 1. The obtained straight line indicates a   porous system, while the value of the fractal dimension(3.1332) assigns for sample heterogeneity. This anisotropyis also confirmed in Fig. 2 which shows the 3-D fractalmodel acquiring a fractal dimension of 2.8668. Regardingsample SJ2, it is identified as medium-grained, well-sorted, porous, friable, yellow sandstone (Fig. 1). Similarly, thissample is characterized by straight line and a value of fractaldimension equals to 3.1317 as demonstrated in Fig. 3 andTable 1. This heterogeneity is also represented in Fig. 3 and Table 1 revealing a value of fractal dimension equals to2.8683.
Table 1
 Thermodynamic model and 3-D fractal model of the Shajara Reservoirs of Shajara Formation of the Permo-Carboniferous Unayzah Groupshowing the three fractal dimension units
Formation Units No. Thermodynamic 3-D fractal
 Φ
 % KmDShajara Formation Upper Shajara FractalDimension Unit SJ-13 3.1279 2.8721 25 973SJ-12 3.1317 2.8683 28 1,440SJ-11 3.1255 2.8745 36 1,197Middle Shajara FractalDimension Unit SJ-9 3.1293 2.8907 31 1,394SJ-8 3.1285 2.8715 32 1,344SJ-7 3.1284 2.8716 35 1,472Lower Shajara FractalDimension Unit SJ-5 3.0929 2.9071 31 55SJ-4 3.1046 2.8954 30 176SJ-3 3.0937 2.9063 34 56SJ-2 3.1317 2.8683 35 1,955SJ-1 3.1332 2.8668 29 1,680
Arab J Geosci (2013) 6:3989
 – 
3995 3991

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