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Psychology Test 1 Terms

Psychology Test 1 Terms

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Published by Andrew Hoff
General Psychology Test 1 Terms
General Psychology Test 1 Terms

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Published by: Andrew Hoff on Nov 25, 2009
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02/18/2014

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Psychology Test 1 1Key Terms
Behavior
Everything we do that can be directly observed.
behavioral approach
A psychological perspective emphasizing the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants.
biological approach
A psychological perspective that examines behavior and mental processesthrough a focus on the body, especially the brain and nervous system.
cognitive approach
A psychological perspective that focuses on the mental processes involvedin knowing: how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems.
critical thinking
The process of thinking reflectively and productively, as well as evaluatingevidence.
evolutionary approach
A psychological perspective that uses evolutionary ideas such asadaptation, reproduction, and "survival of the fittest" as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors.
Functionalism
An early school of psychology that was concerned with the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in individuals' adaptation to the environment.
humanistic approach
A psychological perspective that emphasizes a person’s positive qualities,capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose any destiny.
mental processes
The thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us experiences privately butthat cannot be observed directly.
natural selection
An evolutionary process that favors organisms' traits or characteristics that are best adapted to reproduce and survive.
Neuroscience
The scientific study of the structure, function, development, genetics, and biochemistry of the nervous system.
positive psychology movement
The push for a stronger emphasis on research involving theexperiences that people value, the traits associated with optimal capacities for love and work, and positive group and civic values.
psychodynamic approach
A psychological perspective emphasizing unconscious thought, theconflict between biological instincts and society's demands, and early family experiences.
psychology
The scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Psychopathology
The study of mental illness.
 
science
In psychology, the use of systematic methods to observe, describe, predict, and explain behavior.
sociocultural approach
A psychological perspective that examines the ways in which the socialand cultural environments influence behavior.
Structuralism
An early school of psychology that attempted to identify the structures of thehuman mind.
case study
An in-depth look at a single individual; also known as a case history.
control group
A comparison group that is as much like the experimental group as possible andis treated in every way like the experimental group except for the manipulated factor.
correlational research
A research strategy that identifies the relationships between two or morevariables in order to describe how these variables change together.
dependent variable
A factor that can change in an experiment in response to changes in theindependent variable.
descriptive statistics
Mathematical procedures that are used to describe and summarize sets of data in a meaningful way.
double-blind experiment
An experiment that is conducted so that neither the experimenter nor the participants are aware of which participants are in the experimental group and which are inthe control group until after the results are calculated.
ecological validity
The extent to which an experimental design is representative of the real-world issues it is supposed to address.
ethnic gloss
Using an ethnic label, such as "African American" or "Latino," in a superficial waythat portrays the ethnic group as more homogeneous than it really is.
experiment
A carefully regulated procedure in which one or more variables believed toinfluence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other variables are held constant.
experimental group
A group in the research study whose experience is manipulated.
experimenter bias
The influence of the experimenter's own expectations on the outcome of theresearch.
hypothesis
An idea that is arrived at logically from a theory. It is a prediction that can be tested.
independent variable
The manipulated experimental factor in an experiment.
 
inferential statistics
Mathematical methods that are used to indicate whether data sufficientlysupport or confirm a research hypothesis.
internal validity
The extent to which changes in the dependent variable are due to themanipulation of the independent variable.
longitudinal design
A special kind of systematic observation that involves obtaining measuresof the variables of interest in multiple waves over time.
mean
A statistical measure of central tendency that is calculated by adding all the scores andthen dividing by the number of scores.
median
A statistical measure of central tendency that falls exactly in the middle of a distributionof scores after they have been arranged (or ranked) from highest to lowest.
meta-analysis
A method that allows researchers to combine the results of several differentstudies on a similar topic in order to establish the strength of an effect.
mode
A statistical measure of central tendency; the score that occurs most often.
naturalistic observation
Observation of behavior in real-world settings with no effort made tomanipulate or control the situation.
operational definition
An objective description of how a research variable is going to bemeasured and observed.
placebo
A harmless, inert substance that may be given to participants instead of a presumedactive agent, such as a drug, and that has no specific physiological effect.
placebo effect
The situation where participants' expectations, rather than the experimentaltreatment,
population
The entire group about which the investigator wants to draw conclusions.
random assignment
The assignment of participants to research groups by chance.
random sample
A sample that gives every member of the population an equal chance of beingselected.
range
A statistical measure of variability that is the distance between the highest and lowestscores.
research participant bias
The influence of research participants' expectations on their behavior within an experiment.

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