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Published by: api-3792621 on Nov 25, 2009
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Trail: Internationalization
The lessons in this trail teach you how to internationalize Java applications. Internationalized
applications are easy to tailor to the customs and languages of end users around the world.
Note: This tutorial trail coversco re internationalization functionality, which is the foundation
required by additional features provided for desktop, enterprise, and mobile applications. For
additional information, see the Java Internationalization home page.
Introduction defines the term internationalization, gives a quick sample program, and provides a
checklist you can use to internationalize an existing program.
Setting the Locale explains how to create and how to useLo ca le objects.
Isolating Locale-Specific Data shows how to dynamically access objects that vary withL oc al e.
Formatting explains how to format numbers, dates, and text messages according toLo ca le, and
how to create customized formats with patterns.
Working with Text provides techniques for manipulating text in a locale-independent manner.
Internationalization of Network Resources explains how to provide internationalization for IDN's
and IRI's
Lesson: Introduction
Internationalization is the process of designing an application so that it can be adapted to various
languages and regions without engineering changes. Sometimes the term internationalization is
abbreviated as i18n, because there are 18 letters between the first "i" and the last "n."
An internationalized program has the following characteristics:
With the addition of localized data, the same executable can run worldwide.

Textual elements, such as status messages and the GUI component labels, are not
hardcoded in the program. Instead they are stored outside the source code and
retrieved dynamically.

Support for new languages does not require recompilation.
Culturally-dependent data, such as dates and currencies, appear in formats that
conform to the end user's region and language.
It can be localized quickly.
Localization is the process of adapting software for a specific region or language by adding locale-
specific components and translating text. The term localization is often abbreviated as l10n, because
there are 10 letters between the "l" and the "n."

The primary task of localization is translating the user interface elements and documentation.
Localization involves not only changing the language interaction, but also other relevant changes
such as display of numbers, dates, currency, and so on. Other types of data, such as sounds and

images, may require localization if they are culturally sensitive. The better internationalized an
application is, the easier it is to localize it for a particular language and character encoding scheme.
Internationalization may seem a bit daunting at first. Reading the following sections will help ease
you into the subject.
A Quick Example
This section shows you how to internationalize a simple program, step by step.

So you've inherited a program that needs to be internationalized or you are planning to determine the
requirements for a newly-developed software. You probably don't know where to start? Check out
this checklist. It summarizes the necessary internationalization tasks and provides links to the
relevant lessons in this chapter.

A Quick Example

If you're new to internationalizing software, this lesson is for you. This lesson uses a simple example
to demonstrate how to internationalize a program so that it displays text messages in the appropriate
language. You'll learn howLo ca le andR es ou rc eB un dl e objects work together and how to use
properties files.

Before Internationalization
The first version of the source code contained hardcoded English versions of the messages we want
to display. This is NOT how you write internationalized software.
After Internationalization
This is a sneak preview of what our source code will look like after internationalization.
Running the Sample Program
To run the sample program, you specify the language and country on the command line. This section
shows you a few examples.
Internationalizing the Sample Program
Internationalizing the program required just a few steps. You'll be surprised at how easy it was.
Before Internationalization
Suppose that you've written a program that displays three messages, as follows:
public class NotI18N {
static public void main(String[] args) {
System.out.println("How are you?");
}You've decided that this program needs to display these same messages for people living in France

and Germany. Unfortunately your programming staff is not multilingual, so you'll need help
translating the messages into French and German. Since the translators aren't programmers, you'll
have to move the messages out of the source code and into text files that the translators can edit.
Also, the program must be flexible enough so that it can display the messages in other languages, but
right now no one knows what those languages will be.

It looks like the program needs to be internationalized.
After Internationalization
The source code for the internationalized program follows. Notice that the text of the messages is not
import java.util.*;
public class I18NSample {
static public void main(String[] args) {
String language;
String country;

if (args.length != 2) {
language = new String("en");
country = new String("US");

} else {
language = new String(args[0]);
country = new String(args[1]);

}Locale currentLocale;

ResourceBundle messages;
currentLocale = new Locale(language, country);
messages = ResourceBundle.getBundle("MessagesBundle",


}To compile and run this program, you need these source files:

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