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CHEMISTRY REVIEWER

CHEMISTRY REVIEWER

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03/18/2014

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TERMS
WORD
DEFINITION
Technology
Application of science to improve the quality of life
Chemistry
The branch of science that deals with matter, its properties, changes
,composition and laws or principles governing the changes
Matter
Anything that occupies space and has mass
Volume
Other word for space
Mass
Amount of matter present in an object
(kg, g, mg, lb, oz)
Weight
Gravitational pull acting on an object
(N, dyne)
Properties
Characteristics/ qualities
Structure
Arrangement of matter
Laws/ Principles
Explanation to the changes
IMPORTANCE OF CHEMISTRY
\u2022
We need to study Chemistry because we and the environment are matter ant to
familiarize the matter around us
BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY
BRANCH OF CHEMISTRY
DEFINITION
Biochemistry
Study of organic compounds where humans are made of
Analytical Chemistry
Analysis of the composition of substances/ materials
Organic Chemistry
Study of carbon and its compounds
Inorganic Chemistry
Study of non carbon containing compounds
Physical Chemistry
Deals with the energy changes happening in chemical
reactions
General Chemistry
Basic concepts of chemistry
STATES OF MATTER
Solid
Molecules are
compress
Definite volume
Has definite shape
Liquid
Molecules are slightly
apart
Fixed volume

Don\u2019t
have
fixed
shape

Only
occupies
the shape
of the
container

Gas
Molecules are far from
each other
Don\u2019t have fixed
volume
Plasma
A form of gas
Composed of energy
charged particles
Bose-Enstein
Condensate
A form of liquid

Produced only in a
temperature near
absolute zero

SCIENTIFIC METHOD
\u2022
Systematic way of finding answers in a problem
STEPS
1. Know the problem
2. Making observation
3. Making hypothesis

4. Test the hypothesis through experimentation
5. Analyze the data gathered
6. Make a conclusion

SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES
1. Keen observer/ Curiosity

2. Open-mindness/ Objectivity
3. Resourcefulness
4. Intellectual Honesty
5. Patience/ Perseverance
6. Humility

7. Acceptance of failure
8. Healthy skepticism
PROPERTIES OF MATTER
PROPERTY
DEFINITION
EXAMPLE
Chemical Properties

Can be observed/ measured only after a matter underwent a change in composition

\u2022
combustibility
\u2022
chemical reactivity
\u2022
rusting formation
Physical Properties

Can be observed/ measured even without the matter undergoing a change in composition

\u2022
5 senses
TYPES OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Extensive/ extrinsic
Properties that depend on the amount
of matter present
\u2022
Mass
\u2022
Volume
\u2022
Taste
\u2022
Odor
Intensive/ intrinsic
Properties that depend on the kind of
matter present
\u2022
Density
\u2022
Boiling point
\u2022
Elasticity
CHANGES IN MATTER
CHANGE
DEFINITION
EXAMPLE
Physical Change
Changes that do not alter the
composition of substance
\u2022
Breaking
\u2022
Melting
\u2022
Freezing
\u2022
Grinding
Chemical Change
Changes in the composition of
substances to form a new substance
\u2022
Rusting
\u2022
Decomposition
\u2022
Cooking
\u2022
Digestion
PHASE CHANGES
Melting
Solid to liquid
Melting of snow and ice
Heat is absorbed by the
matter
Evaporation
Liquid to gas
Evaporation of water or
refrigerant
Sublimation
Solid to gas
Sublimation of dry ice,
free-drying of coffee
Freezing
Liquid to solid
(solidification)
Freezing of water or a
liquid metal
Heat is released by the
matter
Condensation
Gas to solid
Formation of dew
Deposition
Formation of frost and
snow
CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
(Classified according to composition)
\u2022
Pure substance
o
A matter that is composed of only one kind of particle
KINDS OF PARTICLES
o
Atoms
o
Molecules
o
Ions
KINDS OF PURE SUBSTANCES
o
Elements \u2013 Periodic Table
\ue000
Simplest form of matter
\ue000
Made up of only one kind of atom or molecule
KINDS OF ELEMENTS
METALS
NONMETALS
METALLOIDS
Usually hard and solid except
Hg, which is a liquid. Cs and
Some are solid, liquid
(bromine), or gas. Usually soft
Solids
Ga melt in unprotected hand
except diamond
Malleable and ductile
Brittle
Brittle
Conductor of heat and
electricity
Basically insulators
Intermediate electrical
conductivity
Lustrous and shiny
Dull except diamond
Intermediate reflectance
High density
Low density
Intermediate density
High melting and boiling
points
Low melting and boiling
points
Low melting and boiling
points
High tensile strength
Low tensile strength
Low tensile strength
o
Compounds
\ue000
Formed when 2 or more elements combined chemically in fixed
proportions
CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOUNDS
\ue000
According to Composition
\u2022Organic \u2013 C6H12O6 , CH4
o
with carbon
\u2022Inorganic \u2013 NaCl , H2O , H2 , SO4
o
without carbon
\ue000
According to Chemical Bond
\u2022
Ionic \u2013 M + NM , ENaCI
o
Ionic bond is present
\u2022Covalent \u2013 NM + NM , H2O
o
Covalent bond is present
\u2022
Mixture
o
Composed of 2 or more substances that combined physically in variable
proportions
CLASSIFICATION OF MIXTURE
(According to number of phases)
o
Homogenous/ Solutions \u2013 sea water, air
\ue000
Single-phased mixtures
\ue000
All the parts are identical
o
Heterogeneous \u2013 Salad, soup, garbage
\ue000
Mixtures consisting of 2 or more phases
\ue000
With parts that are dissimilar
KINDS OF HETEROGENEOUS
\ue000
Suspension
\u2022
The suspended particles can be seen and are large to be
trapped in a filter
\ue000
Colloid
\u2022
Mixture with particles bigger than the particles of a solution but
smaller than those of a suspension
\ue000
Coarse Mixture
\u2022
The particles can be separated mechanically
\u2022
Brownian Movement
o
Rapid, haphazard motion of colloidal particles
o
Caused by the collision of the colloidal particles with
the molecules of the dispersion medium
o
Colloidal particles do not settle because of the
Brownian Movement
\u2022
Tyndall Effect
o
The reflection of light by colloidal particles
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COMPOUND AND MIXTURE
COMPOUND
MIXTURE
\u2022
Fixed proportion
\u2022
Cant be separated by ordinary
physical means
\u2022
Chemically combined
\u2022
Can be expressed in formulas
\u2022
Variable proportion
\u2022
Cant be separated by ordinary
physical means
\u2022
Physically combined
\u2022
Cant be express in formulas

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