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The Effect of Immediate Self-Listening and Self-Evaluation on Tuneful Song Replication

The Effect of Immediate Self-Listening and Self-Evaluation on Tuneful Song Replication

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Published by angelay71

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Published by: angelay71 on Nov 25, 2009
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Immediate Self-Listening & Song Replication 1Running head: IMMEDIATE LISTENING & SONG REPLICATIONThe Effect of Immediate Self-Listeningand Self-Evaluation on Tuneful Song ReplicationAngela K. YarnellThe University of KansasWord Count: 3,621
Immediate Self-Listening & Song Replication 2AbstractThe purpose of this study was to discover if student singers were able to engage inmeaningful self-assessment and self-correction after immediate playback of their  performance of a given musical example. Participants were high school students ingrades ten through twelve (N=30) who were enrolled in an auditioned chorus and also played an instrument, but had contrasting backgrounds in music experiences andteachers. Subjects were divided at random into two groups, asked to sing a given musicalexample alone, mark perceived errors, and perform the example again. The treatmentgroup also listened to their first attempt in headphones while marking errors on the score.The results indicated a statistically significant difference between male pretest and posttest scores in the treatment group. Self-evaluation was not found to be valid under these circumstances. The type of practice students chose may have impacted their  performance success. Those who chose to sing or hum during practice showed higher mean scores than those who practiced silently.
Immediate Self-Listening & Song Replication 3The Effect of Immediate Playback Self-Listeningand Self-Evaluation on Tuneful Song ReplicationOne of the National Content Standards for Music Education states that “studentswill sing alone with independence, accuracy, and expressiveness” (Bayt Bradford, 2003).Certainly, many choral and private voice teachers work rigorously to develop singingability in their students. It is generally agreed among choral directors that the manymulti-faceted goals for conducting choirs “are linked to the overriding desire toencourage musical independence” (Beckman-Collier, 2003, p. 35). However, general beliefs and testimonies on how to accomplish this goal have not been empiricallyresearched. This study seeks to fill the gap in research concerning developing studentindependence through self-assessment of their singing and then self-correction of their  performance.Student self-assessment is popular among teachers of many subjects, but there isopposing empirical evidence of its effectiveness in general. There is even less certaintywith respect to singing and active listening in such a dynamic area as music. Typicalchoral rehearsals involve drilling of notes, rhythms, and additional musical elements, butthis type of skill practice does not “help students gain a deeper understanding of themusic or the ability to interact with music in an independent manner by thinkingcritically” (Field, 1998, p.14). Students in other subject areas who were actively engagedin goal-setting and integrated forms of assessment have shown that there is a significantrelationship between active forms of self-assessment and increased student achievementand product quality (Eslinger, 2004). When given an opportunity to codesign the criteriafor evaluation, 75% of elementary students assessed and revised their work 

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