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Published by: ssiillaass on Jun 23, 2014
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T Cain
Gas Dynamics Ltd., 2 Clockhouse Road, Farnborough, GU14 !"#am$shire, U% tcain&gasdynamics.co.uk 
 Intake design for supersonic engines, in common with other engineering design problems, is application dependent and the true challenges are in meeting performance targets over the required Mach and  Reynolds number ranges while complying with the multitude of constraints imposed by the aircraft/missile and its mission. The fundamentals and limitations of efficient ram compression are well understood and  since !"!, #TI$, RT% and !&R!#& provide free public access to a large database of intake e'periments conducted in the ()*+s to ()+s, the designer should be aware of problems encountered and the fi'es applied during previous testing of isolated intakes. The outline of this lecture is a brief tour of  some historic supersonic intakes discussing the features that enable the intake to meet its requirements and applying some reverse engineering to deduce how the designers appear to have approached the  problem. The tour is combined with an introduction to tailoring compressive flow fields by e'ploitation of one and two dimensional flow elements.
'here is an established (ormat (or lectures, books and re)ie*s concerning intakes, *ith a large section allocated to ta+onomy, distinguishing ty$es by the number and location on the aircra(t-missile the degree o( e+ternal and internal com$ression *hether they are based on t*o dimensional $lane (lo*s, a+isymmetric (lo*s, or are three dimensional and *hether they are out*ard turning or in*ard turning. 'he (unction and design o( the su$ersonic di((user is then dealt *ith be(ore a discussion o( the subsonic di((user. /ethods o( accounting (or, and controlling boundary layers are necessarily included.'his lecture a$$roaches the sub0ect (rom a di((erent $ers$ecti)e, here *e are less concerned *ith intakes in general, and (ar more concerned *ith the details o( selected intakes. 'he di((erence in a$$roach re(lects a di((erence in $hiloso$hy, and teaching styles.  think it is easier to e+tra$olate and e+$and (rom a detailed small study, than to imagine or rein)ent *hat has not been re)ealed in a general o)er)ie*. hould a less (ocused a$$roach be $re(erred, there are good re(erences that are (ree to do*nload. Re(erence 31 is a (ine e+am$le, summarising *hat *as kno*n about intakes in 1564, *hich is $ractically e)erything kno*n about them today. t is not that *ork done a(ter that time is redundant, but since the ground *ork *as com$lete, later intake studies tend to be either learning e+ercises (or the indi)iduals in)ol)ed, or are (ocussed on an a$$lication and remain un$ublished (or commercial and-or military reasons.Fortunately *ith the ela$se o( time and the retirement o( aircra(t and missiles, the sensiti)ity o( the a$$lied design *ork reduces, and some details enter the $ublic domain. Consistent *ith the $ers$ecti)e outlined abo)e, this lecture takes ad)antage o( the in(ormation a)ailable on historic intakes and dra*s conclusions regarding the design a$$roach taken. 7( $articular interest are the (eatures that enable the intake to (unction o)er the range o( /ach numbers and the angles o( attack to *hich it *as sub0ected. 'here is considerable risk that some o( these conclusions are erroneous but the conse8uences o( a misinter$retation are small, the aim is not to recreate the system, but to e+$lore the design dri)ers and the res$onse to them. (  ha)e dra*n the *rong conclusions,  a$ologise to the designers (or misre$resenting their creations, but
RTO-EN-AVT-185 5 - 1
Ramjet Intakes
at least  should still ha)e succeeded in introducing the $roblems to be addressed and the elements that are the keys to the solution.
2.1Mach 4
 amjet !"#ee$ %&i'ht $(in' ))2
'rommsdor((9s ram0et $o*ered $ro0ectiles made the *orld9s (irst su$ersonic air:breathing (lights. ;bout 26< o( the e+$erimental 1=cm diameter > series, (igure 1, *ere (ired (rom a gun *ith mu??le )elocities o( about 1<<<m-s, accelerating to 146<m-s during a @.2s burn. 'rommsdor((9s modestly *ritten, detailed account o( their de)elo$ment 32, is unclassi(ied but un(ortunately rather di((icult to obtain, and his *ork has not recei)ed the recognition it deser)es. #e *as (ortunate to be able to call u$on the %aiser:Ailhelm:nstitute in Gottingen and the nstitute (or ;erodynamics in Braunsch*eig (or ad)ice on intakes, gas dynamics and combustion. ;t the (irst he consulted *ith randtl, Bet?, Lud*ieg, and 7s*atitsch and at the second *ith Busemann, chmidt and Damkohler. /ost researchers in gas dynamics *ill be (amiliar *ith those names and *ill a$$reciate 'rommsdor(( could not ha)e been better ad)ised.
Figure 1: Trommsdorff projectiles, the 28cm calibre, diesel fuelled C3 (top) and the 15cm calibre, CS
 fuelled E4.(bottom). The original version of this figure was published by the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (AGARD/NATO) for Trommsdorff [2].
'he 1<kg C@ *as designed to be (ired (rom the German %= gun at 122@m-s, accelerate to 16<m-s, and then co)er a distance o( @=<km in (ree ballistic (light. 'he *ar ended, and 'rommsdor( *as taken to Russia be(ore the C@ could be tested. ;(ter his release and return to Germany, 'rommsdor( re$orted that the C@ achie)ed the calculated $er(ormance *hen tested else*here 32.
2.2Os#atitsch*s intake eseach
7s*atitsch is no* synonymous *ith the multi$le shock e+ternal com$ression intakes o( the ty$e e+hibited abo)e and Busemann *ith all internal com$ression intakes $articularly those utilising isentro$ic com$ression based on a conical (lo* Ea one dimensional (lo*, *ith $ro$erties being only a (unction o( the angle (rom the )erte+ the e+istence o( *hich he hy$othesised and $ro)ed. 'he di((erential (orm o( the
Ramjet Intakes
5 - 2 RTO-EN-AVT-185
e8uations that describe such (lo*s *ere (ormulated and $ublished by 'aylor and /acoll *ith re(erence to Busemann.'here is a limit to internal contraction abo)e *hich an intake *ill not start, and instead (lo* *ill s$ill around the co*l *ith the amount entering the engine sim$ly set by choked (lo* through the intake throat as determined by stagnation conditions do*nstream o( a normal shock standing in (ront o( the co*l. 'his limit, no* kno*n as the %antro*it? limit, *as (irst de(ined by 7s*atitsch in the study he made (or 'rommsdor((. ; translation o( his re$ort is a)ailable as re(erence 3@ and it also contains the $roo( o( the result (or *hich he is best kno*n shocks o( a multi shock di((user should ha)e e8ual strength (or ma+imum $ressure reco)ery. 7ne does not need a mathematical $roo( to understand this result, it is due to the (act that entro$y rise increases ra$idly *ith the tem$erature ratio across a shock and i( t*o shocks *ithin a se8uence did not ha)e the same tem$erature ratio the entro$y gain o)er the stronger shock *ill out*eigh the decreased rise on the *eaker shock *hen the (lo* is com$ressed to the same /ach number.
Figure 2: Oswatitsch's optimal multi-shock intake parameters as a function of flight Mach number
7s*atitsch9s o$timal intake ram$ angles are most easily (ound using his $rocedure, *hich starts *ith the /ach number u$stream o( the terminal normal shock. U$stream obli8ue shocks all ha)e this normal com$onent o( /ach number and one can determine a corres$onding (reestream /ach number by sim$ly ste$$ing u$stream through the chosen number o( shocks. Results (rom this calculation are $resented in (igure 2. 'here are three $oints to note (rom the (igure ;t /ach numbers abo)e three, $ressure ratio across each shock is relati)ely high and in most cases *ould be su((icient to se$arate the boundary layer total de(lection o( the t*o and three ram$ intakes is )ery high and unless the de(lections are in o$$osite sense *hich im$lies internal com$ression, the co*l *ill be at a stee$ angle im$lying high drag successi)e de(lections increase in magnitude, some*hat like C@ in (igure 1 and unlike >4.7s*atitsch e+$erimented *ith a biconic intake at /ach 2.5 3@, e+$loring and de(ining su$er and subcritical o$eration Estarted and unstarted in today9s $arlance, bu?? Ethe noise (rom (lo* $ulsation during unstable subcritical o$eration, subsonic di((user losses, and the e((ect o( boundary layer bleed and angle o( attack. Concerns o)er sel(:starting, co*l drag, and (lo* stability, immediately relegated his shock strength o$timisation to the role o( guidance. From the beginning, the choice o( intake ram$ angles (or a ram0et *as kno*n to be in(luenced by much more than 0ust shock losses.
1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.01234567891011M
  p  r  e  s  s  u  r  e  r  a   t   i  o
1 shock2 shock3 shock1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.05101520253035404550M
   t  o   t  a   l   d  e   f   l  e  c   t   i  o  n ,   d  e  g
1 shock2 shock3 shock2 raps1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.04681012141618202224M
   d  e   f   l  e  c   t   i  o  n ,   d  e  g
2nd shock1st shock3 raps1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.046810121416182022M
   d  e   f   l  e  c   t   i  o  n ,   d  e  g
3rd shock2nd shock1st shock
Ramjet Intakes
RTO-EN-AVT-185 5 - 3

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