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Breastfeeding is the mechanism of feeding an infant or young child with milk directly
from female breasts, instead of using a baby bottle or other container. Human breast milk is
regarded as the best source of nourishment for infants. It supposedly helps in preventing them
from diseases and promotes health, thus reduces health care costs. In recent times, artificial
modes of feeding are linked with increase in mortality rates among infants.
The optimal duration of breastfeeding is a cause of dispute between experts. WHO
recommends exclusive dependence on breastfeeding for the first six months and continued
feeding with other diets for up to two years or beyond. American Academy of Pediatrics
differs in their recommendations and suggests at least one year of breastfeeding, for the first
six months they are in harmony with the WHO.
Below are analyzed and summarized a few studies depicting the current trends of
breastfeeding among the mothers. The obvious or the potential hindrances were also
highlighted in these studies.
Synopsis of the article - Johnson,T. S .; Mulder , P. J.; Strube, K. (Jul-Aug 2007). Mother-
Infant Breastfeeding Progress Tool: A Guide for Education and Support of the Breastfeeding
Dyad. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing. Volume 36, Number 4, p.
319-27.The purpose of the article is to describe the development of the Mother-Infant
Breastfeeding Progress Tool to be used at the bedside by nurses to guide ongoing support and education for the mother-baby dyad. It is a cross-sectional study done incommunity hospital in a Midwestern city. Sample size was sixty-two (n = 62) English-speaking mother-infant dyads. For this purpose three nurse raters (two per session) independently scored the eight
The agreement between raters was high for individual items of the Mother-Infant
Breastfeeding Progress Tool. The Mother-Infant Breastfeeding Progress Tool is useful as a
checklist for assessing maternal and infant breastfeeding progress, but still additional research
is needed to support the validity of the tool.
Synopsis of the article - Philipp, B. L.; Merewood, A.; Miller, L. W. Chawla, N.; Murphy-
Smith, M. M. et al. Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative Improves Breastfeeding Initiation Rates
in a US Hospital Setting.
For this study breast feeding initiation rates were compared at an inner-city teaching
hospital, that provides care primarily to poor, minority and immigrant families, before (1995),
during (1998) and after (1999) Baby-friendly policies were in place. The hospital chosen was
Boston Medical Centre.
Two hundred complete medical records, randomly selected by a computer, were
reviewed from each of three years: 1995, 1998 and 1999. Infants were excluded for medical
records missing feeding data, HIV-positive parent, neonatal intensive care unit admission,
maternal substance abuse, adoption, incarceration or hepatitis-C positive mother. All infant
feedings during the hospital postpartum stay were tallied, and each infant was categorized in
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