about 225 BC. Archimedes was able to work out the lengths of varioustangents to the spiral.Thecurvatureof Archimedes' spiral isand thearc lengthis
AnArchimedean spiralwithpolar equationThe hyperbolic spiral, also called the inverse spiral (Whittaker 1944,p. 83), originated with Pierre Varignon in 1704 and was studied by JohannBernoulli between 1710 and 1713, as well as by Cotes in 1722 (MacTutor Archive).It is also a special case of aCotes' spiral, i.e., the path followed by aparticle in a central orbit with power lawwhen is a constant and is the specific angular momentum.
Fermat's spiral, also known as the parabolicspiral, is anArchimedean spiralwithhavingpolar equationThis curve was discussed by Fermat in 1636. For any givenpositivevalue of , there are twocorresponding values of of opposite signs. The left plot above showsonly, while the right plot shows equation (1) in red andin blue. Taking both signs, the resulting spiral is symmetrical about the origin.
-axis,and and are arbitraryconstants. The logarithmic spiral is also known as the growthspiral, equiangular spiral, and spira mirabilis. It can beexpressed parametrically asThisspiralis related toFibonacci numbers,thegolden ratio, andgolden rectangles,and issometimes called thegolden spiral.The logarithmic spiral can be constructed from equally spaced rays by starting at a point along oneray, and drawing the perpendicular to a neighboring ray. As the number of rays approached infinity,the sequence of segments approaches the smooth logarithmic spiral (Hilton
1997, pp. 2-3).The logarithmic spiral was first studied by Descartes in 1638 and Jakob Bernoulli. Bernoulli was sofascinated by the spiral that he had one engraved on his tombstone (although the engraver did notdraw it true to form) together with the words "eadem mutata resurgo" ("I shall arise the same thoughchanged"). Torricelli worked on it independently and found the length of the curve (MacTutor Archive).The rate of change of radiusisand theanglebetween the tangent and radial line at the point isSo, as , and the spiral approaches acircle.If is any point on the spiral, then the length of the spiral from to the origin is finite. In fact, fromthe point which is at distance from the origin measured along aradiusvector, the distance fromto thepolealong the spiral is just thearc length.In addition, anyradiusfrom the origin meets thespiral at distances which are ingeometric progression(MacTutor Archive).Thearc length(as measured from the origin, ),curvature,andtangential angleof thelogarithmic spiral are given by
Conchoid of Nicomedes
Acurve withpolar coordinates,, studied by the Greek mathematician Nicomedes inabout 200 BC, also known as the cochloid. It is thelocusof points a fixed distance away from a lineas measured along a line from thefocuspoint. Nicomedes recognized the three distinct forms seenin this family for , , and . (For , it obviously degenerates to acircle.)The conchoid of Nicomedes was a favorite with 17th century mathematicians and could be usedto solve the problems of cube duplication,angle trisection,heptagonconstruction, and other Neusis constructions(Johnson 1975).InCartesian coordinates,the conchoid of Nicomedes may be writtenor The conchoid has as an asymptote, and theareabetween either branch and theasymptoteisinfinite.A conchoid with has a loop for , where , givingareaThecurvatureandtangential angleare given by
Conchoid of de Sluze
The conchoid of deSluze is thecubiccurvefirstconstructed by Renéde Sluze in 1662. Itis given by theimplicit equationor the polar equationThis can be written in parametric form asThe conchoid of de Sluze has asingular pointat the origin which is acrunodefor , acuspfor , and anacnodefor .It hascurvatureandtangential angleThe curve has a loop if , in which case the loop is swept out by. The area of the loop is