Many developed countries (for example the UK, the U.S., and Canada) and manydeveloping/semi-developed countries (People's Republic of China, India etc.) dependsignificantly on industry. Industries, the countries they reside in, and the economies of thosecountries are interlinked in a complex web of interdependence.The industrial revolution led to the development of factories for large-scale production,with consequent changes in society. Originally the factories were steam-powered, but later transitioned to electricity once an electrical grid was developed. The mechanized assembly linewas introduced to assemble parts in a repeatable fashion, with individual workers performingspecific steps during the process. This led to significant increases in efficiency, lowering the costof the end process. Later automation was increasingly used to replace human operators. This process has accelerated with the development of the computer and the robot.
is the use of control systems (such as numerical control, programmablelogic control, and other industrial control systems), in concert with other applications of information technology (such as computer-aided technologies [CAD, CAM, CAX]), to controlindustrial machinery and processes, reducing the need for human intervention
In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization providedhuman operators with machinery to assist them with the physical requirements of work,automation greatly reduces the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well.Processes and systems can also be automated.Automation plays an increasingly important role in the global. Engineers strive tocombine automated devices with mathematical and organizational tools to create complexsystems for a rapidly expanding range of applications and human activities.Many roles for humans in industrial processes presently lie beyond the scope of automation. Human-level pattern recognition, language recognition, and language production ability are well beyond thecapabilities of modern mechanical and computer systems. Tasks requiring subjective assessmentor synthesis of complex sensory data, such as scents and sounds, as well as high-level tasks suchas strategic planning, currently require human expertise. In many cases, the use of humans ismore cost-effective than mechanical approaches even where automation of industrial tasks is possible.