various starch processing industries. The microbial amylases meet industrial demands and have almost completely replaced chemical hydrolysis of starch in starch processing industry. This study explored the use of jackfruit seed as carbon source in the production of alpha-amylase. A production medium composed of ground jackfruit seed and yeast extract powder was mixed with 10% inoculum of Bacillus licheniformis 1331 cultured in nutrient broth at 30 C for 18 hours. The effects of temperature and carbon to nitrogen
ml medium and incubated with shaking. Samples were taken at regular intervals at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 18, 24, 27, and 30 hours of fermentation. Enzyme activity and protein concentration were determined using Alpha- amylase assay and Bradford assay, respectively. Biomass was determined by dry cell weight (DCW) analysis. Alpha-amylase production was highest during exponential growth at 4-8 hours of fermentation.
In the environment abound possible sources of essential materials or substances
the development or production of certain products like enzymes, which will be useful to humans, plants, and other animals. These substances can be produced in significantly large amounts with the advent of biotechnology, but primarily the materials and the factors that influence its production source must be identified. Papain was prepared from high quality latex of Carica papaya (Baines, B. S. and Brocklehurst, K., 1978). Some wastes from fruits and vegetables can also be a good substrate for enzyme production. One study was done on banana fruit stalk, which was
used as a substrate for alpha-amylase production by Bacillus subtilis under solid-state fermentation (Krishna and Chandrasekaran, M., 1996). A similar study was also done using potato peelings (Shukla, J. and Kar, R., 2000). Trypsin/ chymotrypsin inhibitor was isolated from jackfruit by ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatography (Sai Annapurna, S. and Siva Prasad, D., 1990). These studies showed that some enzymes could be produced using components of fruits and vegetables as substrate.
This particular study aims to produce an enzyme by a Bacillus sp. using the seeds of a locally grown fruit as substrate. This particular fruit is jackfruit
known as \u201cnangka\u201d or \u201clangka\u201d, which is a favorite dessert of Filipinos and is a widely grown fruit crop in the Philippines. It contains carbohydrates, protein,
sodium, potassium, B-complex, ascorbic acid, and small amounts of fats, ash, and iron. Analysis of jackfruit food composition per 100 gram edible portion showed that the carbohydrate content of the seed is 34.90 g (Agriculture and Fisheries Information Science, Department of Agriculture).
Based on the above composition, the jackfruit seed having a high content of carbohydrate can be used as a substrate for the production of the enzyme amylase. The production of amylase is of great significance in biotechnology. It is commercially important in some processing industries such as beverages, food, textile, detergents, and paper industries (Pandey et al., 2000).
This enzyme can be produced using a specific microorganism or fungi under
The amylases can be derived from several sources ranging from bacteria to plants to humans. Bacteria and fungi secrete amylases to the outside of their cells to carry out extracellular digestion. When they have broken down the insoluble starch, the soluble end products such as glucose or maltose are absorbed into their cells. This particular study will use
and environmental conditions such as temperature and carbon/nitrogen ratio.
The significance of this study is that another substrate will be added to the existing list of carbon sources for amylase production by microorganisms. Many industrial processes use waste materials from plants or animals. Part of solving the environmental problem of waste management can be addressed by the utilization of waste products. Jackfruit seeds as waste from fruit can be a potential material for enzyme production. Being a substrate it will become a source of income for fruit vendors and farmers. This study becomes important to the biotechnology industry and likewise contributes to environmental
121\u00b0C (15 lbs psi) for 15 minutes. The outer seed coating was removed. Seeds were grinded by using a coffee grinder. Grinded seeds were placed in zip locked plastic bag and stored in the freezer.
the Philippine National Collection of Microorganisms (PNCM), BIOTECH, University of the Philippines, Los Ba\u00f1os, Laguna.
Twenty-eight (28) g of nutrient agar was mixed with 1L-distilled water in 1L cotton plugged Erlenmeyer flask. The medium was sterilized by
nutrient agar plate and incubated at 30\u00b0C for 30 h. Several growing colonies were transferred to nutrient agar slants and
incubated at 30\u00b0C for 18 h. Nutrient agar slants were stored in refrigerator and subcultured every three (3) weeks.
slant was inoculated in 100 ml nutrient broth in 250 ml cotton plugged Erlenmeyer flask. It was
ml Erlenmeyer flask contains jackfruit seed as carbon source at 10%, 15%, and 20%
and HIMEDIA\u00ae RM 027 yeast extract powder as nitrogen source at 20%. The pH of the production medium was 7. The inoculum size was 10% (v/v) of the production medium. The culture was
Factors such as temperature and source of carbon and nitrogen affecting production of amylase were optimized by varying parameter one ats a time. The experiment was conducted in 250 ml cotton
flask containing 100 ml of production medium. The pH of 7, temperature at
30\u00b0C and 37\u00b0C, carbon source at 10%, 15%, and 20%, and nitrogen source at 20% were used. The optimum C/N ratio was determined by varying carbon and nitrogen source of production medium. A factorial design shown below was conducted.
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