here are wide varieties of methods that can be usedto process aquatic feeds.For examples, in early daysthe most common method to feed thefish was hand feeding of mixed, home-blended diets and trash fish. Then fishfarmers started using cold formingof moist diets. Pelleting presses thenbecame popular and a majority of thefish feed were processed using pelletmill technology.
Today extrusion technology is themethod of choice to process aqua feedbecause of the benefits it offersto fish farmers.Each method had its advan-tages and disadvantages.The initial days of aquacul-ture were very simple whichinvolved hand feeding of ‘trash
fish’ or home-blended diets. These diets
were simulated natural diets and werevery palatable but the availability was notconsistent and providing fresh feed everyday was difficult.Storage of the fresh fish was a problem.Farmers need to store these fish in coldstorage or use only fresh. At the same timedisease and virus transmission was verycommon in fresh trash fish. Feeding thefresh trash fish in large ponds was verylabor intensive and water pollution was ahuge issue in the ponds.
Pelleted aqua feed
The next phase in aquatic feed process-
Benefits of using
to process aquatic feed
Effect of Extrusion on Microbial Populations
MicrobeRaw Recipe AfterExtrusion
TPC (CFU/g) 240,000 9,300Coliform 22,600 <10Mold count 54,540 <10Clostridium 16,000 <10Listeria positive negativeSalmonella negative negative
by Dr Mian N Riaz, HeadExtrusion Technology Program,Texas A&M University, USA
Picture 1: Floating and sinking requirements of different species
18 | InternatIonal
| Mch-api 09-i
Picture 3: A closed loopsystem used to add wetslurry in preconditioner
ing was use of pellet mills. Pelleted aquaticfeed offered several advantages over thehand fed natural diets.For example, pelleted feed wasdenser and lower in moisture than thenatural feed, so the long-term storagewas better. Pelleting also reduced thesegregation of the ingredients whichwas a very common problem in home-made diets.Since feed was pelleted there was lesswaste of feed in the water and that resultedin some improvements in water pollutionand quality. As a result, pelleting offered lowprocessing cost and a higher processingrate to the aquatic feed industry.Operation of a pellet millwas not a complex proc-ess. On the other hand itwas very difficult to makefloating fish feed with thepellet mill. This means therewas no control over buoyancy.At the same time micro aquatic feed
(less than 2.00mm) was not possible with the
pellet mill. The cooking temperature in thepelleting process was too low to be adequatefor destruction of anti-nutritional factors,pathogenic organisms and virusesin the feed.
Floating and sinking
Current aquatic feed manufac-turing practices seem to fit intotwo simple categories; floating andsinking.Today 100 percent floating feedis extruded and nearly 60 percentsinking feed is extruded. Whereas,the rest of the 40 percent sink-ing feed is still pelleted. This is just simply because extrusioncooking offers several benefitsto the aquatic feed manufactures.Following is the brief descriptionof the advantages of the extrudedfeed.
Hygienic quality ofextruded feed
Ingredients are cooked at high tempera-tures and pressures.Therefore, extrusion cooking provideshygienic processing of feed destroying thepathogens and most viruses and reducingthe toxin levels in the feed ingredients.In extrusion cooking avian influenzavirus is destroyed during the processing
(greater than 70ºC).
Also, Newcastle disease virusis inactivated by the extrusion and drying
process where temperatures exceed 75ºC
for one minute. Growth inhibitor, allergensand other anti-nutritional factors largelyinactivated during extrusion cooking.Table 1 shows the effect of extrusion onmicroorganism and their survival.
Option of producingfloating or sinking feed
There are many aquatic species that arecultured today.Some of them prefer to eat the pellet onthe bottom of the pound where as someof species like to come on the surface to