refers to the process in which a mineral is dissolved. As fluids pass through thesediment, the unstable constituents will dissolve and are transported away or arereprecipitated in nearby pores where conditions are different. The dissolution of solubleminerals by a solution under saturated with respect to that mineral depends on pH, Eh,temperature, pressure, PCO2, ion strength etc. Common minerals to dissolve areevaporates such as halite, sylvite and anhydrite. This process is important because itcommonly leads to secondary porosity.
is a process that occurs as pressure is concentrated at the point of contact between two grains in the sediment. This causes solution and subsequentmigration of ions or molecules away from the point of contact, towards an area of lower pressure where the dissolved phase can be reprecipitated.
is the process in which chemical precipitates (in the form of new crystals)form in the pores of a sediment or rock, binding the grains together. Some commoncements are quartz, calcite and hematite, but a wide variety of cements are known, suchas aragonite, gypsum, and dolomite. Pressure solution produces locally derived cement,but many cements consist of new minerals previously in solution in the fluid phase.Cementation reduces porosity by filling in the pore spaces between the grains.Higher pH and higher temperatures favor carbonate cements. Lower pH and lowtemperatures favor quartz or chert cements. Syntaxial overgrowths are formed whencement growth occurs as and an extension of existing detrital "crystal".The reverse process, called
, also is thought to occur. There is evidencethat decementation has occurred in calcareous sandstones, in which case the calcareouscement or grains are dissolved in the same manner as the solution of limestones. Thefrosted and etched surfaces of quartz grains in some friable and loosely cementedsandstones seem to indicate the former presence of a carbonate cement that has beenleached.
is the process in which new mineral phases arecrystallized in the sediment or rock during diagenesis. These new minerals may beproduced:
By reactions involving phases already present in the sediment (or rock)
Through precipitation of materials introduced in the fluid phase, or
From a combination of primary sedimentary and introduced components.This process overlaps with weathering and cementation. It usually involvesrecrystallization and may result in replacement. Authigenic phases include silicates suchas quartz, alkali feldspar, clays and zeolites; carbonates such as calcite and dolomite;evaporite minerals such as halite, sylvite and gypsum, as well as many others.Examples of authigenesis are: