Compiler is a program that reads a program written in one language \u2013 the source language \u2013 and translates it in to an equivalent program in another language \u2013 the target language. As an important part of this translation process, the compiler reports to its user the presence of errors in the source program.
There are two parts to compilation: Analysis and Synthesis. The analysis part breaks up the source program into constituent pieces and creates an intermediate representation of source program. The synthesis part constructs the desired target program from the intermediate representation. Of the two parts, synthesis requires the most specialize technique.
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