Department of Civil Engineering
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
matter of fact, the behaviour of the structure is affected by these non-structural elements in earthquake loads. To indicate the effect of the masonry infill walls on dynamic behaviour of structure, a five story reinforced masonry infill and bare frame building models ware selected and designed according to IS 1893 codal provisions. In building the infill walls are modeled by equivalent strut approach and the bottom storey of the building kept openly for considering the realistic behaviour of the presently existing buildings in India. Nonlinear static and nonlinear dynamic analysis were performed to study the response behaviour of the buildings. Three strong motion records from Imperial Valley (1979), Northridge (1994) and San Fernando (1971) earthquakes are used to perform nonlinear dynamic analysis. Results shown that presence of infill walls greatly contribute the stiffness to lateral loads and the deviation in storey response quantities (displacement, storey shear) are decreasing due to the infill masonry walls but the response quantities at the soft storey level is significantly large. This effects, however, is not found to be significant in the bare frame model. Due to impulsive character and pulse type behaviour in near-fault ground motions greatly reflected on displacement response of building. The detailed description of the study is given in the paper.
A large number of buildings in India are constructed with masonry infill for functional and architectural reasons. Masonry infill is normally considered as non-structural elements and their stiffness contributions are generally ignored in practice but the results of resent researchers [1-3] show that the infill walls influence on the stiffness of the structure especially when the structure is under gone to inelastic range.
For this purpose a five story bare frame and infilled reinforced concrete building model were designed according to the IS 1893-2002 . Three strong motion records from Imperial Valley (1974), Northridge (1994) and San Fernando (1971) are considered.
In the case of an infill wall located in a lateral load resisting frame the stiffness and strength contribution of the infill are considered by modeling the infill as a an equivalent compression strut . The in fill parameters are effective width, elastic modulus and strength were calculated using the method recommended by smith  the length of the strut is given by the diagonal distance d of the panel and thickness is given by the thickness of the infill wall. The estimation of
Where, Em and Ef are elastic moduli of wall and frame material respectively; t, h and l are respectively the thickness, height and length of the infill panel. The angle\u03b8 is defined as,\u03b8 = tan- (h/l). The modulus of elasticity of masonry, Em is expressed as, Em=kfm, where fm is the strength of the masonry and k is a coefficient, whose value can be assumed to be 750 for concrete blocks and 500 for clay bricks.
The force-deformation relation for the axial hinge in compression is obtained from literature . It is a linear curve till the peak stress is reached followed by a plastic behaviour. For higher strain, the stress is assumed to drop with increasing strain to a small fraction of the peak value and there after the stress remains, almost count. The tensile strength of masonry infill was neglected for the analysis. It provides a rational basis for estimating the lateral strength and stiffness of the infilled frames as well as the infill diagonal-cracking load.
The building configuration is used in this study is simple and regular; two-dimensional structural models are sufficient to capture the structural behaviour of the buildings. Three-dimensional models are recommended only when the structural models are eccentric. In this study, a five storey regular building model is considered and the plan and elevations of the buildings are shown in Figs. 2.1, 2.2 and 2.4. It has four bays in N-S and E-W directions. The storey height is 4m for the first storey and 3.5m for all other stories. Unit weight of the concrete is 25 KN/m3, Unit weight of masonry is 19 KN/m3, Elastic modulus of steel is 2x108KN/m2, Elastic modulus of concrete is 24821128 KN/m2, Charctestic strength of concrete 20 N/mm2, Yield strength of steel is 415 N/mm2 and live load is 3 KN/m2 is used in this study. The buildings are assumed to be situated in Zone-V of India. Firm ground is used, Importance factor is 1.5, Response reduction factor is 3 and Zone factor is 0.36 are taken from the IS-1893 standards to obtain the lateral seismic forces. The design is carried out by IS-456 standards and the resulting reinforcement details of the bare and infilled building models are shown in Figs. 2.3 and 2.4. The complete details of the ground motions considered in the study are given in .
Nonlinear static analysis is performed to determined the lateral load resisting capacity of the structure and nonlinear dynamic analysis is performed to evaluate seismic performance of bare and infilled frame model. The periods of vibrations of the buildings are determined from Eigen value analysis and these values are given in Table 2. When infill stiffness is considered, the fundamental period of the structure reduces and the structure attracts more base shear.
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