This study focuses on the seismic performance of Ordinary Moment-Resisting Concrete Frames (OM- RCF) designed only for gravity loads. For this purpose, a 3-story OMRCF was designed in compliance with the minimum design requirements in the American Concrete Institute Building Code ACI 318 (1999). This model frame was a regular structure with \ue000exure-dominated response. A 1=3-scale 3-story model was constructed and tested under quasi-static reversed cyclic lateral loading. The overall behavior of the OMRCF was quite stable without abrupt strength degradation. The measured base shear strength was larger than the design base shear force for seismic zones 1, 2A and 2B calculated using UBC 1997. Moreover, this study used the capacity spectrum method to evaluate the seismic performance of the frame. The capacity curve was obtained from the experimental results for the specimen and the demand curve was established using the earthquake ground motions recorded at various stations with di\ue001erent soil conditions. Evaluation of the test results shows that the 3-story OMRCF can resist design seismic loads of zones 1, 2A, 2B, 3 and 4 with soil types SAand SB. For soil type SC, the specimen was satisfactory in seismic zones 1, 2A, 2B and 3. For soil type SD, the OMRCF was only satisfactory for seismic zones 1 and 2A. Copyright?2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
During the recent earthquakes, such as the 1994 Northridge earthquake in the U.S.A., the 1995 Kobe earthquake in Japan, and the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, many concrete frame structures experienced substantial damage. Older low- to mid-rise concrete buildings were particularly vulnerable to those earthquakes. The seismic performance of concrete buildings during such earthquakes generally depends on reinforcement details, building shape, applied design provisions, etc. Insu\ue002cient details can cause unexpected structural failure during a large earthquake event.
Most low-rise buildings in low-to-moderate seismic zones, and older buildings in high seismic zones have been designed primarily for gravity loads. Because such buildings have less stringent details than those required in a high seismic zone (e.g. strong column\u2013weak beam requirements need not be considered), the buildings may behave in a brittle manner during a large earthquake event. In these cases story mechanisms can develop.
Current design provisions, such as ACI 318 (2002) , de\u00ffne three types of moment frames: Ordinary Moment Resisting Concrete Frame (OMRCF), Intermediate Moment Re- sisting Concrete Frame (IMRCF), and Special Moment Resisting Concrete Frame (SMRCF). OMRCF is the most popular type of moment frame in low-to-moderate seismic zones. This study focuses on OMRCF for which the detail and design requirements are less stringent than IMRCF and SMRCF. The details of OMRCF are di\ue001erent from those of IMRCF and SMRCF as follows:
This study investigates the seismic behavior of moment frames designed only for gravity loads (1.4D + 1.7L), and detailed by the requirements for OMRCF in ACI 318 (1999) . For this purpose, a 1=3-scale 3-story OMRCF o\ue002ce building was constructed and tested.
In this study, the Capacity Spectrum Method (CSM) was used to evaluate the seismic performance of the OMRCF. This method requires both the capacity and demand curves to \u00ffnd a performance point. This point is treated as the seismic demand of a structure (ATC-40, 1996) . In this study, the capacity curve was determined from the experimental result of the OMRCF structure. The demand spectrum was determined from the ground motion acceleration of 30 earthquakes, recorded at the SB, SCand SDsoil sites. The accelerations were scaled to conform to the design spectrum in seismic zones 1, 2A, 2B, 3 and 4, as classi\u00ffed in the UBC .
In this study a 3-story o\ue002ce building was considered. The building was assumed to have 3 bays in the E\u2013W direction and 4 bays in the N\u2013S direction. The story height was 3:5 m and the width of each bay was 5:5 m. The total building height was 10:5 m. Figure 1 shows the dimensions of the building. Table I shows the design loads used in the building design. The speci\u00ffed compressive strength of concrete (f\ue000
are assumed to be 23:5 MPa (240 kgf=cm2) and 392 MPa (4000 kgf=cm2), respectively. Struc- tural analysis for member design was carried out using the commercial software SAP2000 . Only gravity loads were considered for the design in this study. As this study is aimed at
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