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Directions:The questions in this section are based on the reasoning contained in brief statements or passages. For some questions, more than one of the choices could conceivably answer the question. However, you are to choose the bestanswer; that is, the response that most accurately and completely answers the question. You should not make assumptions that are by commonsense standards implausible, superfluous, or incompatible with the passage. After you have chosen the best answer, blacken the corresponding space on your answer sheet.
1. Editorial: Almost every year the Smithfield River
floods the coastal fishing community of Redhook,
which annually spends $3 million on the cleanup.
Some residents have proposed damming the river,
which would cost $5 million but would prevent
the flooding. However, their position is
misguided. A dam would prevent nutrients in the
river from flowing into the ocean. Fish that now
feed on those nutrients would start feeding
elsewhere. The loss of these fish would cost
Redhook $10 million annually.
2. We already knew from thorough investigation that
immediately prior to the accident, either the driver of
the first vehicle changed lanes without signaling or the
driver of the second vehicle was driving with excessive
speed. Either of these actions would make a driver
liable for the resulting accident. But further evidence
has proved that the first vehicle\u2019s turn signal was not
on, though the driver of that vehicle admits to having
changed lanes. So the driver of the second vehicle is
not liable for the accident.
3. In some places, iceberg lilies are the mainstay of
grizzly bears\u2019 summer diets. The bears forage meadows
for the lilies, uprooting them and eating their bulbs.
Although the bears annually destroy a large percentage
of the lilies, scientists have determined that the bears\u2019
feeding habits actually promote the survival of iceberg
Which one of the following, if true, most helps to resolve the apparent discrepancy in the statements above?
Iceberg lilies produce so many offspring that,
when undisturbed, they quickly deplete the
resources necessary for their own survival.
A significantly smaller number of iceberg lily
flowers are produced in fields where grizzly
bears forage than in fields of undisturbed
The geographic regions in which iceberg lilies
are most prevalent are those regions populated
by grizzly bears.
4. Advertisement: Seventy-five percent of dermatologists surveyed prefer Dermactin to all other brands of skin cream. Why? We consulted dermatologists during the development of Dermactin to ensure that you have the best skin cream on the market. So if you need a skin cream, use Dermactin.
overlooks the possibility that other types of
doctors have cause to use Dermactin, which
would render the sample unrepresentative
presumes, without providing justification, that
some dermatologists are less qualified than
others to evaluate skin cream
relies on an inappropriate appeal to the opinions
of consumers with no special knowledge of
overlooks the possibility that for a few people,
using no skin cream is preferable to using even
the best skin cream
5. Landscape architect: If the screen between these two
areas is to be a hedge, that hedge must be of
either hemlocks or Leyland cypress trees.
However, Leyland cypress trees cannot be grown
this far north. So if the screen is to be a hedge, it
will be a hemlock hedge.
In which one of the following is the pattern of reasoning most similar to that in the landscape architect\u2019s argument?
If there is to be an entrance on the north side of
the building, it will have to be approached by a
ramp. However, a ramp would become
impossibly slippery in winter, so there will be
no entrance on the north side.
If visitors are to travel to this part of the site by
automobile, there will be a need for parking
spaces. However, no parking spaces are
allowed for in the design. So if visitors are
likely to come by automobile, the design will
The subsoil in these five acres either consists
entirely of clay or consists entirely of shale.
Therefore, if one test hole in the area reveals
shale, it will be clear that the entire five acres
has a shale subsoil.
Any path along this embankment must be either
concrete or stone. But a concrete path cannot
be built in this location. So if there is to be a
path on the embankment, it will be a stone
A space the size of this meadow would be
suitable for a playground or a picnic area.
However, a playground would be noisy and a
picnic area would create litter. So it will be
best for the area to remain a meadow.
one\u2019s potential. They have also claimed that
happiness is elusive and can be achieved only
after years of sustained effort. But these
philosophers have been unduly pessimistic, since
they have clearly exaggerated the difficulty of
being happy. Simply walking along the seashore
on a sunny afternoon causes many people to
experience feelings of happiness.
It fails to take into account that what brings someone happiness at one moment may not bring that person happiness at another time.
It makes a generalization based on the testimony of a group whose views have not been shown to be representative.
potential demands made by humans. The natural
tendency for there to be an imbalance between demand
and sustainable supply is the source of these global
problems. Therefore, any solutions require reducing
current human demand.
8. We can now dismiss the widely held suspicion that
sugar consumption often exacerbates hyperactivity in
children with attention deficit disorder. A scientific
study of the effects of three common sugars\u2014sucrose,
fructose, and glucose\u2014on children who have attention
deficit disorder, with experimental groups each
receiving a type of sugar in their diets and a control
group receiving a sugar substitute instead of sugar,
showed no statistically significant difference between
the groups in thinking or behavior.
Only one of the three types of sugar used in the
study was ever widely suspected of
The study included some observations of each group in contexts that generally tend to make children excited and active.
Some children believe that they can tell the
difference between the taste of sugar and that
of sugar substitutes.
9. Philosopher: An action is morally good if it both
achieves the agent\u2019s intended goal and benefits
someone other than the agent.
Colin chose to lie to the authorities questioning
him, in an attempt to protect his friends. The
authorities discovered his deception and
punished Colin and his friends severely. But
because he acted out of love for his friends,
Colin\u2019s action was morally good.
new neighbors to the neighborhood. When they
arrived for dinner, Derek found out that the
newcomers were strict vegetarians. Though the
new neighbors were still grateful for Derek\u2019s
Ellen worked overtime hoping to get a
promotion. The extra money she earned
allowed her family to take a longer vacation
that year, but she failed to get the promotion.
Nevertheless, Ellen\u2019s action was morally good.
Louisa tried to get Henry into serious trouble by
making it appear that he stole some expensive
clothes from a store. But the store\u2019s detective
realized what Louisa did, and so Louisa was
punished rather than Henry. Since she intended
Yolanda took her children to visit their
grandfather because she wanted her children to
enjoy their vacation and she knew they adored
their grandfather. The grandfather and the
children all enjoyed the visit. Though Yolanda
greatly enjoyed the visit, her action was
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