Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
266Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Chemical Bond I

Chemical Bond I

Ratings:

4.93

(15)
|Views: 15,918 |Likes:
Published by MalaysiaBoleh

More info:

Published by: MalaysiaBoleh on Mar 19, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/28/2013

pdf

text

original

 
 1
Chemical Bond I
WHY DO ATOMS BOND TOGETHER?
1.
 
Bonding is
 
the way in which atoms join together and combine with one another. The arrangement of the resulting particles is called the structure
.
 
2.
 
Some atoms are very reluctant to combine with other atoms and exist in the air around us assingle atoms.3.
 
These are the
Noble Gases
and have
very stable electron arrangements
eg
2
,
2.8
and
2.8.8
 
because their outer shells are full
.4.
 
The first three are shown in the diagrams below and explains why Noble Gases are so reluctantto form compounds with other elements.
Noble gas structure.
 
THE OCTET RULE
EXAMPLE 1.(a) Arrange the 11 electrons of sodium into shells.(b) Arrange the 10 electrons of neon into shells.Answ: 
The first two electrons fill the first shell, and the next eight electrons fill the second shell. Thatleaves one electron left in sodium for the third shell.
Shell Number1 2 3(a) Na 2 8 1(b) Ne 2 8
1.
 
The charge on the nucleus and the number of electrons in the valence shell determine thechemical properties of the atom.2.
 
The electronic configurations of the noble gases (except for that of helium) correspond to avalence shell containing eight electrons—a very stable configuration called an
octet 
.
3.
 
Atoms of other main group elements tend to react with other atoms in various ways toachieve the octet, as discussed in the next sections.4.
 
The tendency to achieve an octet of electrons in the outermost shell is called
the octet rule 
.
5.
 
If the outermost shell is the first shell, that is, if there is only one shell occupied, then themaximum number of electrons is two.6.
 
A configuration of two electrons in the first shell, with no other shells occupied by electrons,is stable and therefore is also said to obey the octet rule.
 
 2
 
7.
 
Atoms can achieve the very stable electronic configurations of the noble gases in two ways:(a)
 
by receiving or releasing electron (Ionic Bonding)(b)
 
by sharing electron (Covalent Bonding)8.
 
Covalent Bonding
- sharing electrons to form molecules with covalent bonds, the bond isusually formed between two non-metallic elements in a molecule.9.
 
Ionic Bonding
- By one atom
transferring electrons
to another atom.10.
 
The phrase
Chemical Bond
refers to the strong electrical force of attraction between the atomsor ions in the structure.11.
 
The combining power of an atom is sometimes referred to as its valency and its value is linkedto the number of outer electrons of the original uncombined atom .
IONS
1.
 
An ion is an atom or group of atoms carrying an overall positive or negative charge eg Na
+
,Cl
-
, [Cu(H
2
O)]
2+
, SO
42-
etc.2.
 
If a particle, as in a neutral atom, has equal numbers of protons (+) and electrons (-) the particlecharge is zero, ie no overall electric charge.ExampleProton Number:Nucleon Number:Number of proton:Number of neutron:Number of electron:Charge:Symbol:3.
 
The proton number in an atom does not change BUT the number of associated electrons can!4.
 
If negative electrons are removed, the excess charge from the protons produces an overallpositive ion.5.
 
If negative electrons are gained, there is an excess of negative charge, so a negative ion isformed.6.
 
The atom
losing electrons
forms a
positive ion (cation)
and is usually a
metal
.7.
 
The atom
gaining electrons
forms a
negative ion (anion)
and is usually a
non-metallicelement
.
1.
 
It is important, with bonding, to remember the following points:a.
 
It is only the valence electrons in the outermost shell which become involved inbonding. The complete, inner shells are not involved.b.
 
It is the aim of every atom to achieve a noble gas structure. This makes it verystable.c.
 
The maximum number of electrons in the first shell is two. This is called a duplet.The maximum number in the second shell is eight. This is called an
octet.
Themaximum number in the third shell is eighteen. However, in many elements, theelectrons begin to fill the fourth shell when there are already eight in the thirdshell.
 
 3ExampleFluorine Atom Number of proton= 9Number of electron= 9Charge =After receiving 1 electron Number of proton=Number of electron=Charge =
1.
 
The Fluoride ion is written F
-
. The Fluoride ion has the same configuration of electrons that a neon atomhas.
 
2.
 
Ions that have the electronic configurations of noble gases are rather stable.
3.
 
Note the very important differences between a fluoride ion and a neon atom—the different nuclearcharges and the net -1 charge on F
-
. The F
-
ion is not as stable as the Ne atom.
 Lithium Atom Number of proton= 3Number of electron= 3Charge =After releasing 1 electron Number of proton=Number of electron=Charge =
4.
 
The Fluoride ion is written Li
+
. The lithium ion has the same configuration of electrons that a helium atomhas, and helium is a noble gas, too.
 
Exercise
Natrium,
11
Na Magnesium,
12
Mg
No of proton:
11
 
No. of electron:
11
 Electron configuration:
2.8.1
Charge:
0
 No of proton:
11
 No. of electron:
10
 
Electron configuration:
2.8
Charge:
+1
 No of proton:No. of electron:Electron configuration:Charge:No of proton:No. of electron:Electron configuration:Charge:
Equation of the process:Na
 ⎯⎯→
Na
+
+ eEquation of the process:
 
Aluminium,
13
Al Nitrogen,
7
N
No of proton:No. of electron:Electron configuration:Charge:No of proton:No. of electron:Electron configuration:Charge:Charge:No of proton:No. of electron:Electron configuration:Charge:No of proton:No. of electron:Electron configuration:Charge:
Equation of the process: Equation of the process:

Activity (266)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
Ana Syahirah liked this
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
Azreen Amira added this note
it's a g00d n0tes and exercises.... tq
ZuLieyqa Ieqa added this note
tq.. but may i get free download for this site??
Evolution Scenge added this note
so good
qalanis liked this
qalanis liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->