Atoms can achieve the very stable electronic configurations of the noble gases in two ways:(a)
by receiving or releasing electron (Ionic Bonding)(b)
by sharing electron (Covalent Bonding)8.
- sharing electrons to form molecules with covalent bonds, the bond isusually formed between two non-metallic elements in a molecule.9.
- By one atom
to another atom.10.
refers to the strong electrical force of attraction between the atomsor ions in the structure.11.
The combining power of an atom is sometimes referred to as its valency and its value is linkedto the number of outer electrons of the original uncombined atom .
An ion is an atom or group of atoms carrying an overall positive or negative charge eg Na
If a particle, as in a neutral atom, has equal numbers of protons (+) and electrons (-) the particlecharge is zero, ie no overall electric charge.ExampleProton Number:Nucleon Number:Number of proton:Number of neutron:Number of electron:Charge:Symbol:3.
The proton number in an atom does not change BUT the number of associated electrons can!4.
If negative electrons are removed, the excess charge from the protons produces an overallpositive ion.5.
If negative electrons are gained, there is an excess of negative charge, so a negative ion isformed.6.
positive ion (cation)
and is usually a
negative ion (anion)
and is usually a
It is important, with bonding, to remember the following points:a.
It is only the valence electrons in the outermost shell which become involved inbonding. The complete, inner shells are not involved.b.
It is the aim of every atom to achieve a noble gas structure. This makes it verystable.c.
The maximum number of electrons in the first shell is two. This is called a duplet.The maximum number in the second shell is eight. This is called an
Themaximum number in the third shell is eighteen. However, in many elements, theelectrons begin to fill the fourth shell when there are already eight in the thirdshell.