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Chemical Bond IV

Chemical Bond IV

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Published by MalaysiaBoleh

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Published by: MalaysiaBoleh on Mar 19, 2008
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 1
Chemical Bond I
The Structure of Ionic Compounds:
Crystal Lattices
1.
 
The
alternate positive and negative ions
 in an
ionic solid
are arranged in an orderlyway in a
giant ionic lattice structure
shown on the left.2.
 
The ionic bond is the strong electricalattraction between the positive andnegative ions
next to each other in thelattice.3.
 
The
bonding extends throughout thecrystal
in all directions.4.
 
Salts and metal oxides
are typical ioniccompounds.5.
 
Some of these compounds, like
magnesia
(MgO) and
alumina (Al
2
O
3
),
are so stablethat they are used as refractory
material,
to line the inside of furnaces. Suchsubstances must be stable up to at least1500 °C.6.
 
Another property of crystal lattices is thatthey are
non-conductors
of electricity.This is because the ions are in fixedpositions and are unable to move.
The properties of Ionic Compounds
 1.
 
This strong bonding force makes thestructure hard (if brittle) and has
highmelting and boiling points
, so they are notvery volatile!2.
 
The bigger the charges on the ions thestronger the bonding attraction egmagnesium oxide
Mg
2+
O
2-
has a highermelting point than sodium chloride
Na
+
Cl
-
.3.
 
Unlike covalent molecules,
ALL ioniccompounds are crystalline solids
at roomtemperature.4.
 
They are hard but brittle
, when stressedthe bonds are broken along planes of ionswhich shear away. They are NOT malleablelike metal.
5.
 
Many ionic compounds are soluble inwater
but not all, so don't makeassumptions.6.
 
The
solid crystals DO NOT conductelectricity
because the ions are not freeto move to carry an electric current.7.
 
However, if the ionic compound is
melted
or
dissolved in water
, the liquidwill now
conduct electricity,
as the ionparticles are now free.
 
 2
The Structure of Covalent Compounds:
Molecules and Macromolecules
1.
 
Covalent compounds
can be divided intothose which form small (simple)independent molecules and those whichform giant molecular lattices.
Molecular Compounds
1.
 
These are made up of independentmolecular units, as shown in Figure 6.7.2.
 
As there are no ions formed, the attractiveforces between molecules in solid, covalentcompounds like iodine and sulphur aremuch weaker.3.
 
They are called
van der Waals
'
 
forcesand produce a weak, molecular latticewith low melting points.4.
 
In covalent liquids like water, themolecules are even further apart, so thevan der Waals' forces are weaker still,and in covalent gases like ammonia andmethane, these forces are almost non-existent.5.
 
However, in water, there are otherattractive forces between molecules.These forces are called hydrogen bondsand they give water much higher meltingand boiling points than expected withsuch weak van der Waals' forces.
The Properties Of Simple CovalentMolecular Substances - Small Molecules!
 1.
 
The
electrical forces of attraction, that isthe chemical bond*, between atoms inany molecule are strong
and mostmolecules do not change chemically onmoderate heating.(
* sometimes referred toas the intramolecular bond
)2.
 
However
,
the electrical forces** betweenmolecules are weak and easily weakenedfurther on heating
.3.
 
These weak attractions are known as
**intermolecular forces
and consequently
the bulk material is not usually verystrong
.4.
 
Consequently
small covalent moleculestend to be volatile liquids, easilyvapourised, or low melting point solids
.5.
 
On heating the inter-molecular forces areeasily overcome with the increased kineticenergy gain of the particles and so have
lowmelting and boiling points
.6.
 
They are also
poor conductors of electricity
because there are
no freeelectrons or ions
in any state to carryelectric charge.7.
 
Most small molecules will dissolve in asolvent to form a solution
.
Macromolecular compounds
1.
 
These have giant, covalent moleculeswith extremely large molecular lattices.2.
 
They are very stable, as all the atomsare joined together by strong covalentbonds to give a giant three-dimensionallattice.3.
 
Often the lattice is tetrahedral in shape,as every atom is covalently linked tofour others.4.
 
Examples of such macromolecules arediamond and sand (see Figure 6.8).
 
 3
Diamond and Silica(Sand)
1.
 
A diamond crystal or a grain of sand is just one giant molecule. Such molecules,because they are so rigid and strong,have very high melting points.
Large Covalent Molecules And TheirProperties
 1.
 
This type of structure is thermally verystable and they have
high melting andboiling points
.2.
 
They are usually
poor conductors of electricity
because the electrons are notusually free to move as they can in metallicstructures.3.
 
Also because of the strength of thebonding in all directions in the structure,they are often very
hard, strong
and
willnot dissolve
in solvents like water.4.
 
Silicon dioxide (silica, SiO
2
)
has a similar3D structure and properties, shown belowdiamond.5.
 
The hardness of diamond enables it tobe used as the 'leading edge' on cuttingtools
.
Graphite
1.
 
Diamond is an
allotrope
of carbon.
Allotropes are different forms of thesame element in the same physical state
 2.
 
Oxygen O
2
(dioxygen) and ozone O
3
 (trioxygen) are two gaseous allotropes of the element oxygen.3.
 
Carbon also occurs in the form of graphite
. The carbon atoms form joinedhexagonal rings forming layers 1 atomthick.4.
 
There are three strong covalent bondsper carbon
(3 C-C bonds in a planararrangement from 3 of its 4 outerelectrons), BUT, the fourth outer electronis '
delocalised
' or shared between thecarbon atoms to form the equivalent of a4th bond per carbon atom.5.
 
The layers are only held together byweak intermolecular forces
shown by thedotted lines NOT by strong covalent bonds.6.
 
Like diamond and silica (above) the largemolecules of the layer ensure graphite
hastypically very high melting pointbecause of the strong 2D bondingnetwork
(note: NOT 3D network).
.
 7.
 
Graphite will not dissolve in solvents
 because of the strong bonding8.
 
BUT there are
two crucial differencescompared to diamond
...9.
 
Electrons, from the 'shared bond', canmove freely through each layer, sographite is a conductor like a metal
(diamond is an electrical insulator and apoor heat conductor). Graphite is used inelectrical contacts eg electrodes inelectrolysis.10.
 
The weak forces enable the layers to slipover each other
so where as diamond ishard material
graphite is a 'soft' crystal
, itfeels slippery.
Graphite is used as alubricant
.11.
 
These two different characteristicsdescribed above are put to a commonuse with the electrical contacts in electricmotors and dynamos. These contacts(called brushes) are made of graphitesprung onto the spinning brass contactsof the armature. The graphite brushesprovide good electrical contact and areself-lubricating as the carbon layers slideover each other.

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