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Obligations Reviewer

Obligations Reviewer

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Luz 1
TITLE I  OBLIGATIONSChapter 1: General Provisions
OBLIGATIONS
Art. 1156. An obligation is a juridical necessity to give, to door not to do.
Elements of an Obligation
: (
obligare-
to
bind)
a.)
 
Active subject-
calle
d
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
ee
(if 
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n is
to
d
o
)
or
 
c
r
e
di
tor
(if 
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n is
to
giv
e
). T
h
e
 p
o
ss
e
ss
or
 
o
a
 
r
ig
ht;
 
h
e
in w
ho
s
e
a
v
or
 
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
nis
c
o
ns
t
i
t
u
t
e
d.b.)
 
Passive subject-
calle
d
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
or
(if 
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
nis
to
d
o
)
or
d
e
b
tor
(if 
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n is
to
giv
e
). H
e
 w
ho
 
h
a
s
th
e
du
ty
 
o
f giving, d
o
ing,
or
n
ot
d
o
ing. T
h
e
 p
a
ssiv
e
subj
ec
t
mus
t
b
e
d
e
t
e
r
min
a
t
e
 
or
 d
e
t
e
r
min
a
b
le
.
a
.
 
H
o
w
ca
n b
oth
subj
ec
t
s b
e
d
e
t
e
r
min
a
t
e
 
or
 d
e
t
e
r
min
a
b
le?
 
 
O
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
ns w
h
e
r
e
 
th
e
subj
ec
t
s
a
r
e
 
c
o
mp
le
t
el
y
 
a
nd
a
bs
o
l
u
t
el
y
d
e
t
e
r
min
e
d
a
t
 
th
e
bi
rth
 
o
a
n
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n.
 
O
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
ns w
h
e
r
e
 
o
n
e
subj
ec
t
is d
e
t
e
r
min
e
d
a
t
 
th
e
m
o
m
e
n
t
 
o
th
e
bi
rth
 
o
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n
a
nd
th
e
 
oth
e
r
subj
ec
t
is
to
b
e
d
e
t
e
r
min
e
dsubs
eq
u
e
n
t
l
y
 
a
t
s
o
m
e
fix
e
d
c
r
i
t
e
r
i
o
n, w
h
i
c
h
 
c
r
i
t
e
r
i
o
n is fix
e
d
a
t
 
th
e
s
t
a
rt
 
o
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n.
 
O
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
ns in w
h
i
c
h
subj
ec
t
s
a
r
e
d
e
t
e
r
min
e
d in
acc
or
d
a
n
ce
wi
th
i
t
s
r
ela
t
i
o
n
to
 
a
 
r
eal
 
th
ing. R
eal
 
r
ig
ht
s.
c
.)
 
Object or prestation-
th
e
subj
ec
t
m
a
tt
e
r
 
o
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n. I
t
m
a
y
 
c
o
nsis
t
 
o
f giving
a
 
th
ing, d
o
ing
or
 n
ot
d
o
ing
a
 
ce
rt
a
in
ac
t
. T
h
e
 
la
w sp
eak
s
o
a
n
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n
a
s
a
ju
r
idi
cal
n
ece
ssi
ty
 
to
 
c
o
mp
l
y
wi
th
 
a
 p
r
e
s
t
a
t
i
o
n. T
h
e
r
e
is
a
ju
r
idi
cal
n
ece
ssi
ty
, f 
or
n
o
n-
c
o
mp
l
i
a
n
ce
 
ca
n
r
e
su
l
t
in ju
r
idi
cal
 
or
 
le
g
al
s
a
n
c
t
i
o
n.
Obligation -
>
prestation (object of the obligation) ->object of the prestation
 
R
equisites of the Object of the Obligation:
o
 
Li
c
i
t
(L
e
g
al
)
o
 
P
o
ssib
le
b
oth
in f 
ac
t
 
a
nd in
la
w
o
 
D
e
t
e
r
min
a
t
e
 
or
d
e
t
e
r
min
a
b
le
-
ca
n
t
s
a
y
 
yo
u
r
e
g
o
ing
to
s
ell
s
o
m
e
th
ing.
o
 
M
us
t
 
h
a
v
e
p
ec
uni
a
ry
v
al
u
e
 d.)
 
Efficient cause-
 
th
e
vin
c
u
l
um
or
ju
r
idi
cal
 
t
i
e
. T
h
e
 
r
ea
s
o
n w
hy
 
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n
e
xis
t
s.
e
.)
 
V
inculum juris-
th
e
 
le
g
al
 
t
i
e
. C
o
nsis
t
s
o
th
e
 
e
nf 
or
cea
bi
l
i
ty
 
o
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n. If 
th
e
d
e
b
tor
d
o
e
sn
ot
 
c
o
nf 
or
m,
th
e
 
c
r
e
di
tor
 
h
a
s
th
e
p
o
w
e
r
 
to
g
o
 
to
 
c
o
u
rt
 
to
m
ake
 
th
e
d
e
b
tor
p
e
r
or
m 
c
o
e
r
c
iv
e
. W
h
a
t
 m
ake
s
a
n
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n is
th
e
p
o
w
e
r
 
o
th
e
 
c
r
e
di
tor
 
to
 
h
a
u
l
 
th
e
d
e
b
tor
b
e
or
e
 
th
e
 
c
o
u
rt
, summ
o
ningp
o
w
e
r
s
o
th
e
s
t
a
t
e
if n
ee
d
e
d. V
o
l
un
t
a
r
in
e
ss g
o
e
sin
to
 
e
n
t
e
r
ing in
to
 
a
n
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n. Bu
t
 
o
n
ce
 
yo
u
e
n
t
e
r
,i
t
b
ec
o
m
e
s inv
o
l
un
t
a
ry
.f.)
 
F
orm-
m
ea
ns m
a
nif 
e
s
t
a
t
i
o
n
o
f in
t
e
n
t
. T
h
e
r
e
is n
o
 sp
ec
ifi
c
or
m f 
or
 
a
v
al
id
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n.
Ch
aracteristics of Obligations
:
BALANE1.
 
I
t
 
r
e
p
r
e
s
e
n
t
s
a
n
e
x
cl
usiv
el
y
p
r
iv
a
t
e
in
t
e
r
e
s
t
.2.
 
C
r
ea
t
e
s
t
i
e
s w
h
i
c
h
 
a
r
e
b
y
n
a
t
u
r
e
 
tr
a
nsi
tory
.
a
.
 
B
eca
us
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
ns
a
r
e
 
e
x
t
inguis
h
e
d. Bu
t
 
th
e
p
e
r
i
o
d is
r
ela
t
iv
e
.3.
 
I
t
inv
o
l
v
e
s
th
e
p
o
w
e
r
 
to
m
ake
 
th
e
ju
r
idi
cal
 
t
i
e
 d
e
ec
t
iv
e
in
ca
s
e
 
o
f n
o
n-fu
l
fi
ll
m
e
n
t
 
thro
ug
h
 s
a
t
isf 
ac
t
i
o
n
o
th
e
d
e
b
tor
s p
ro
p
e
rty
.
inds of Obligations
(a)
 
Sanction
 
1)
 
Civil obligation
or
 
perfect obligation
- A
rt
. 1156. T
h
e
 s
a
n
c
t
i
o
n is judi
c
i
al
p
ro
ce
ss.
2)
 
Natural obligation
-
th
e
du
ty
n
ot
 
to
 
r
ec
o
v
e
r
w
h
a
t
 
h
a
sv
o
l
un
t
a
r
i
l
y
b
ee
n p
a
id
al
tho
ug
h
p
a
y
m
e
n
t
w
a
s n
o
 
l
o
ng
e
r
 
r
eq
ui
r
e
d. T
h
e
r
e
is n
o
 
r
eal
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n
o
n
th
e
 p
a
rt
 
o
th
e
d
e
b
tor
, bu
t
du
e
 
to
 
c
o
ns
c
i
e
n
ce
 
or
gui
l
t
,
h
e
 s
t
i
ll
fu
l
fi
ll
s
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n. (f 
or
 
e
x
a
mp
le
,
a
d
e
b
t
 
h
a
d
al
r
ea
d
y
p
r
e
s
c
r
ib
e
d, bu
t
 
th
e
d
e
b
tor
p
a
y
s
th
e
d
e
b
t
 b
eca
us
e
 
o
c
o
ns
c
i
e
n
ce
 
or
gui
l
t
)
3
)
 
M
oral obligation
(
or
 
imperfect obligation)
-
th
e
 s
a
n
c
t
i
o
n
h
e
r
e
is
c
o
ns
c
i
e
n
ce
 
or
m
or
al
i
ty
. (f 
or
 
e
x
a
mp
le
, g
o
ing
to
m
a
ss)
(b)
 
Subject
M
atter
 
1)
 
R
eal obligation-
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n
to
giv
e
.
2)
 
Personal obligation-
 
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n
to
d
o
 
or
n
ot
 
to
 d
o
. (f 
or
 
e
x
a
mp
le
,
r
e
r
a
ining f 
ro
m
c
o
mmi
tt
ing
a
 
c
r
im
e
)
(c)
 
Affirmativeness or Negativeness of the Obligation
 
1)
 
Positive
or
 
affirmative obligation-
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n
to
 giv
e
 
or
 
to
d
o
.
2)
 
Negative obligation
-
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n n
ot
 
to
d
o
(w
h
i
c
h
 n
a
t
u
r
all
y
in
cl
ud
e
s n
ot
 
to
giv
e
).
(d)
 
V
iewpoint of Persons Obliged
 
1)
 
U
nilateral-
w
h
e
r
e
 
o
n
l
y
 
o
n
e
 
o
th
e
p
a
rt
i
e
s is b
o
und.Ev
e
ry
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n
h
a
s 2 p
a
rt
i
e
s
;
if 
o
n
l
y
 
o
n
e
 
o
th
e
m isb
o
und, w
e
 
h
a
v
e
 
a
uni
la
t
e
r
al
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n.
2)
 
Bilateral-
w
h
e
r
e
b
oth
p
a
rt
i
e
s
a
r
e
b
o
und.
a
.
 
R
ec
ip
ro
cal
 b.
 
N
o
n-
r
ec
ip
ro
cal
- w
h
e
r
e
p
e
r
or
m
a
n
ce
b
y
 
o
n
e
 is n
o
n-d
e
p
e
nd
e
n
t
up
o
n p
e
r
or
m
a
n
ce
b
y
 
th
e
 
oth
e
r
.
C
R
ITICIS
M
:
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n s
tr
e
ss
e
s m
e
r
el
y
 
th
e
du
ty
 
o
th
e
 d
e
b
tor
(
th
e
p
a
ssiv
e
 
ele
m
e
n
t
) wi
tho
u
t
 
e
mp
h
a
sizing
a
 
c
orr
e
sp
o
nding
r
ig
ht
 
o
n
th
e
p
a
rt
 
o
th
e
 
c
r
e
di
tor
(
th
e
 
ac
t
iv
e
 
ele
m
e
n
t
). T
h
e
d
e
fini
t
i
o
n is in
c
o
mp
le
t
e
, in
th
a
t
, i
t
vi
e
ws
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
ns
o
n
l
y
ro
m
th
e
d
e
bi
t
sid
e
. T
h
e
r
e
is n
o
d
e
b
t
wi
tho
u
t
 
 
Luz 2
a
 
c
r
e
di
t
,
a
nd
th
e
 
c
r
e
di
t
is
a
n
a
ss
e
t
in
th
e
p
a
tr
im
o
n
y
 
o
th
e
 
c
r
e
di
tor
jus
t
 
a
s
th
e
d
e
b
t
is
th
e
 
l
i
a
bi
l
i
ty
 
o
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
or
.
R
amos:
a
n
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n is
a
ju
r
idi
cal
 
r
ela
t
i
o
n w
h
e
r
e
b
y
 
a
p
e
r
s
o
n(
calle
d
th
e
 
c
r
e
di
tor
) m
a
y
d
e
m
a
nd f 
ro
m
a
n
oth
e
r
(
calle
d
th
e
 d
e
b
tor
)
th
e
 
o
bs
e
r
v
a
n
ce
 
o
a
d
e
t
e
r
min
a
t
iv
e
 
c
o
ndu
c
t
(
th
e
 giving, d
o
ing,
or
n
ot
d
o
ing),
a
nd in
ca
s
e
 
o
f b
r
eac
h
, m
a
y
 d
e
m
a
nd s
a
t
isf 
ac
t
i
o
n f 
ro
m
th
e
 
a
ss
e
t
s
o
th
e
 
la
tt
e
r
.
SOUR
ES OF OBLIGATIONS
Art. 1157. Obligations arise from:(1)
 
Law;(2)
 
Contracts;(
3
)
 
Quasi-contracts;(4)
 
Acts or omissions punished by law; and(5)
 
Quasi-delicts.
Sources of Obligation
:
n
o
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n
e
xis
t
s if 
th
e
s
o
u
r
ce
is n
ot
 
o
n
e
 
o
tho
s
e
 
e
num
e
r
a
t
e
d und
e
r
A
rt
. 1157 (
e
x
cl
usiv
e
n
e
ss
o
th
e
 
e
num
e
r
a
t
i
o
n).
1.
 
Law
-
obligations ex lege.
BALANE:
th
e
r
e
is
r
eall
y
 
o
n
l
y
 
o
n
e
s
o
u
r
ce
 
o
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
ns,
la
w. Wi
tho
u
t
 
th
e
 
la
w s
a
y
ing
th
e
p
a
rt
i
c
u
la
r
 
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
is
e
nf 
or
cea
b
le
,
th
e
 
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
wi
ll
 n
ot
giv
e
 
r
is
e
 
to
 
a
n
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n. H
o
w
e
v
e
r
, s
o
u
r
ce
 
ca
n b
e
 und
e
r
s
too
d in b
oth
 
th
e
u
l
t
im
a
t
e
 
a
nd imm
e
di
a
t
e
s
e
ns
e
. In
th
e
u
l
t
im
a
t
e
s
e
ns
e
,
la
w is
th
e
s
o
l
id
a
ry
s
e
ns
e
. In
th
e
 imm
e
di
a
t
e
s
e
ns
e
,
th
e
r
e
 
a
r
e
5. L
a
w is b
oth
 
a
n imm
e
di
a
t
e
 
a
nd u
l
t
im
a
t
e
s
o
u
r
ce
.
 2.
 
Contracts- obligations ex contractu.
3
.
 
Quasi-contracts- obligations ex quasi-contractu.
(f 
or
 
e
x
a
mp
le
,
th
e
du
ty
 
to
 
r
e
fund
a
n 
o
v
e
r
 
c
h
a
ng
e
 
o
f m
o
n
e
y
 b
eca
us
e
 
o
th
e
 
q
u
a
si-
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
 
o
f s
o
l
u
t
i
o
n ind
e
bi
t
i
or
 undu
e
p
a
y
m
e
n
t
)
 4.
 
Crimes or Acts or Omissions Punished by Law-obligations ex maleficio or ex delicto.5.
 
Quasi-delicts or Torts- obligations ex delicto or ex quasi-maleficio.
(f 
or
 
e
x
a
mp
le
,
th
e
du
ty
 
to
 
r
e
p
a
i
r
d
a
m
a
g
e
du
e
 
to
n
e
g
l
ig
e
n
ce
)
 C
R
ITICIS
M
:
In
r
eal
i
ty
,
th
e
r
e
 
a
r
e
 
o
n
l
y
2 s
o
u
r
ce
s:
th
e
 
la
w
a
nd
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
s, b
eca
us
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
ns
a
r
ising f 
ro
m
q
u
a
si-
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
s,
c
r
im
e
s
a
nd
q
u
a
si-d
el
i
c
t
s
a
r
e
 
r
eall
y
imp
o
s
e
d b
y
 
la
w.
LAW/OBLIGATION EX-LEGE 
Art. 1158. Obligations derived from law are not presumed.Only those expressly determined in this Code or in speciallaws are demandable; and shall be regulated by theprecepts of the law which establishes them; and as to whathas not been foreseen, by the provisions of this Book.
M
eaning of the Article:
th
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n mus
t
b
e
 
clea
r
l
y
 (
e
xp
r
e
ss
l
y
 
or
imp
l
i
e
d
l
y
) s
e
t
orth
in
th
e
 
la
w.
onflicts between
ivil 
ode and Special Laws
:
if 
r
e
g
a
r
ding
a
n
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n
e
x
le
g
e
 
or
 
la
w,
th
e
r
e
is
a
 
c
o
nf 
l
i
c
t
b
e
t
w
ee
n
th
e
 N
e
w Civi
l
C
o
d
e
 
a
nd
a
sp
ec
i
al
 
la
w,
th
e
 
la
tt
e
r
p
r
e
v
a
i
l
s un
le
ss
th
e
 
c
o
n
tr
a
ry
 
h
a
s b
ee
n
e
xp
r
e
ss
l
y
s
t
ipu
la
t
e
d in
th
e
N
e
w Civi
l
 C
o
d
e
.
ONTRA
TS/OBLIGATION EX-
ONTRA
TU 
Art. 1159. Obligations arising from contracts have the forceof law between the contracting parties and should becomplied with in good faith.
Obligations ex-contractu
:
w
h
i
le
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
ns
a
r
ising f 
ro
m
a
 
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
 
h
a
v
e
 
th
e
or
ce
 
o
la
w b
e
t
w
ee
n
th
e
p
a
rt
i
e
s,
th
is d
o
e
sn
ot
m
ea
n
th
a
t
 
th
e
 
la
w is inf 
e
r
i
or
 
to
 
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
s. B
e
or
e
 
a
 
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
 
ca
n b
e
 
e
nf 
or
ce
d, i
t
mus
t
fi
r
s
t
b
e
v
al
id,
a
nd i
t
 
ca
nn
ot
 b
e
v
al
id if i
t
is
a
g
a
ins
t
 
th
e
 
la
w.
M
or
e
o
v
e
r
,
th
e
 
r
ig
ht
 
o
th
e
 p
a
rt
i
e
s
to
s
t
ipu
la
t
e
is
l
imi
t
e
d. BALANE:
c
o
mbin
e
s
eq
ui
ty
 
or
 g
oo
d f 
a
i
th
 
a
nd s
tr
i
c
t
 
c
o
mp
l
i
a
n
ce
b
y
 
th
e
p
a
rt
i
e
s.
M
eaning of the Article:
N
e
i
th
e
r
p
a
rty
m
a
y
uni
la
t
e
r
all
y
 
a
ndup
o
n
h
is
o
wn
e
x
cl
usiv
e
v
o
l
i
t
i
o
n,
e
s
ca
p
e
 
h
is
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
ns und
e
r
 
th
e
 
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
, un
le
ss
th
e
 
oth
e
r
p
a
rty
 
a
ss
e
rt
e
d
th
e
r
e
to
,
or
 un
le
ss f 
or
 
ca
us
e
s suffi
c
i
e
n
t
in
la
w
a
nd p
ro
n
o
un
ce
d
a
d
eq
u
a
t
e
 b
y
 
a
 
c
o
mp
e
t
e
n
t
 
tr
ibun
al
.
OBLIGATIONS CONT
R
ACTS
T
h
e
 
result 
o
a
 
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
 
or
 s
o
m
e
 
oth
e
r
 s
o
u
r
ce
.A
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
, if v
al
id,
al
w
a
y
s
r
e
su
l
t
s in
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
ns.C
o
n
tr
ac
t
s
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
ns
A contract is a meeting of the mindsbetween 2 persons whereby one bindshimself, with respect to the other, to givesomething or to render some service
.(A
rt
. 1305)T
h
e
 
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
ing p
a
rt
i
e
s m
a
y
 
e
s
t
a
b
l
is
h
su
c
h
 s
t
ipu
la
t
i
o
ns,
cla
us
e
s,
t
e
r
ms
a
nd
c
o
ndi
t
i
o
ns
a
s
th
e
y
m
a
y
d
ee
m
c
o
nv
e
ni
e
n
t
, p
ro
vid
e
d,
th
e
y
 
a
r
e
n
ot
 
c
o
n
tr
a
ry
 
to
 
la
w, m
or
al
s, g
oo
d
c
us
to
ms, pub
l
i
c
 
or
d
e
r
,
or
pub
l
i
c
p
o
l
i
c
y
.(A
rt
. 1306)
P
e
r
ec
t
e
d b
y
m
e
r
e
 
c
o
ns
e
n
t
,
a
nd f 
ro
m
th
a
t
 m
o
m
e
n
t
,
th
e
p
a
rt
i
e
s
a
r
e
b
o
und n
ot
 
o
n
l
y
 
to
 
th
e
fu
l
fi
ll
m
e
n
t
 
o
f w
h
a
t
 
h
a
s b
ee
n
e
xp
r
e
ss
l
y
 s
t
ipu
la
t
e
d bu
t
 
al
s
o
 
to
 
all
 
th
e
 
c
o
ns
eq
u
e
n
ce
sw
h
i
c
h
,
acc
or
ding
to
 
th
e
i
r
n
a
t
u
r
e
, m
a
y
b
e
 in
kee
ping wi
th
g
oo
d f 
a
i
th
, us
a
g
e
 
a
nd
la
w.(A
rt
. 1315).F
ro
m
a
n
oth
e
r
vi
e
wp
o
in
t
. A
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
m
a
y
 i
t
s
el
f b
e
 
a
 
r
e
su
l
t
 
o
a
n
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n. (f 
or
 
e
x
a
mp
le
, if s
o
m
e
o
n
e
 
e
ng
a
g
e
s s
o
m
e
o
n
e
 
a
s
a
n
a
g
e
n
t
,
yo
u
h
a
v
e
 
th
e
 
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
 
o
a
g
e
n
c
y
)
Innominate Contracts (Contratas Innominado)
 
Luz 3
a
.)
 
D
o
u
t
d
e
s- I giv
e
 
th
a
t
 
yo
u m
a
y
giv
e
.b.)
 
D
o
u
t
ac
i
a
s- I giv
e
 
th
a
t
 
yo
u m
a
y
d
o
.
c
.)
 
F
ac
i
o
u
t
d
e
s- I d
o
 
th
a
t
 
yo
u m
a
y
giv
e
.d.)
 
F
ac
i
o
u
t
ac
i
a
s- I d
o
 
th
a
t
 
yo
u m
a
y
d
o
.
Q
UASI-
ONTRA
TS/OBLIGATION EX 
Q
UASI-
ONTRA
TU 
Art. 1160. Obligations derived from quasi-contracts shall besubject to the provisions of Chapter 1, Title X
V
II, of thisBook.
Q
uasi-contractu
:
th
a
t
ju
r
idi
cal
 
r
ela
t
i
o
n
r
e
su
l
t
ing f 
ro
m
a
 
la
wfu
l
, v
o
l
un
t
a
ry
,
a
nd uni
la
t
e
r
al
 
ac
t
,
a
nd w
h
i
c
h
 
h
a
s f 
or
i
t
spu
r
p
o
s
e
 
th
a
t
p
a
y
m
e
n
t
 
o
f ind
e
mni
ty
 
to
 
th
e
 
e
nd
th
a
t
 
no
 
on
eshall be u
nj 
ustly e
n
riched 
o
r be
n
efited at the expe
n
se
o
 f a
no
ther.
A
q
u
a
si-
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
is n
ot
 
a
n imp
l
i
e
d
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
b
eca
us
e
 
th
e
r
e
is n
o
m
ee
t
ing
o
th
e
minds.
2
Principal 
inds:
a)
 
Negotiorum gestior (unauthorized management)-
w
h
e
n
a
p
e
r
s
o
n v
o
l
un
t
a
r
i
l
y
 
t
ake
s
c
h
a
r
g
e
 
o
a
n
oth
e
r
s
a
b
a
nd
o
n
e
d busin
e
ss
or
p
ro
p
e
rty
wi
tho
u
t
 
th
e
 
o
wn
e
r
s
a
u
thor
i
ty
(A
rt
. 2144). R
e
imbu
r
s
e
m
e
n
t
mus
t
b
e
m
a
d
e
 
to
 
th
e
g
e
s
tor
or
n
ece
ss
a
ry
 
a
nd us
e
fu
l
 
e
xp
e
ns
e
s,
a
s
a
 
r
u
le
 (A
rt
. 2150).
 b)
 
Solutio indebiti (undue payment)
-
th
is
t
ake
s p
lace
w
h
e
ns
o
m
e
th
ing is
r
ece
iv
e
d w
h
e
n
th
e
r
e
is n
o
 
r
ig
ht
 
to
d
e
m
a
ndi
t
,
a
nd i
t
w
a
s undu
l
y
d
el
iv
e
r
e
d
thro
ug
h
mis
t
ake
. T
h
e
 
r
eq
uisi
t
e
s f 
or
 
th
e
 
cla
im
o
r
e
fund:
 a.
 
H
e
w
ho
p
a
id w
a
s n
ot
und
e
r
 
a
n
y
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n
to
d
o
s
o
.
 b.
 
T
h
e
p
a
y
m
e
n
t
w
a
s m
a
d
e
b
y
 
r
ea
s
o
n
o
a
n
e
ss
e
n
t
i
al
 mis
t
ake
 
o
f f 
ac
t
.
 
OBLIGATION EX DELI 
TO OR EX MALEFI 
IO
Art. 1161. Civil obligation arising from criminal offenses shallbe governed by the penal laws, subject to the provisions of Art. 2177, and of the pertinent provisions of Chap. 2,Preliminary Title, on Human
R
elations, and of Title X
V
III of this Book, regulating damages.
 Art. 100 of t 
h
e RP 
: Ev
e
ry
p
e
r
s
o
n
c
r
imin
all
y
 
l
i
a
b
le
or
 
a
el
o
n
y
 is
al
s
o
 
c
ivi
ll
y
 
l
i
a
b
le
.
O
t
e
n
t
im
e
s
th
e
 
c
o
mmissi
o
n
o
a
 
c
r
im
e
 
ca
us
e
s n
ot
 
o
n
l
y
m
or
al
 
e
vi
l
bu
t
 
al
s
o
m
a
t
e
r
i
al
d
a
m
a
g
e
. If n
o
 m
a
t
e
r
i
al
d
a
m
a
g
e
is d
o
n
e
,
c
ivi
l
 
l
i
a
bi
l
i
ty
 
ca
nn
ot
b
e
 
e
nf 
or
ce
d.
ivil Liability arising from a
rime includes:
a
)
 
R
e
s
t
i
t
u
t
i
o
nb)
 
R
e
p
a
r
a
t
i
o
n
o
th
e
d
a
m
a
g
e
 
ca
us
e
d
c
)
 
Ind
e
mnifi
ca
t
i
o
n f 
or
in
c
o
ns
eq
u
e
n
t
i
al
d
a
m
a
g
e
 
D
amages in case of death:
A
t
 
lea
s
t
 
P
50,000 mus
t
b
e
giv
e
n
to
 
th
e
 
h
e
i
r
s
o
th
e
vi
c
t
im. (L
o
ss
o
ea
r
ning
ca
p
ac
i
ty
 
a
nd m
or
al
 d
a
m
a
g
e
s,
a
m
o
ng
oth
e
r
 
th
ings, s
ho
u
l
d b
e
giv
e
n)
ivil Action implicitly instituted in criminal case
:
a
s
a
g
e
n
e
r
al
 
r
u
le
, w
h
e
n
e
v
e
r
 
a
 
c
r
imin
al
 
ac
t
i
o
n is ins
t
i
t
u
t
e
d,
th
e
 
c
ivi
l
 
ac
t
i
o
n
or
 
th
e
 
c
ivi
l
 
l
i
a
bi
l
i
ty
is
al
s
o
imp
l
i
e
d
l
y
ins
t
i
t
u
t
e
d
to
g
e
th
e
r
wi
th
 
th
e
 
c
r
imin
al
 
ac
t
i
o
n.
ind of Proof 
:
a
)
 
If 
a
 
civil action
m
e
r
el
y
is ins
t
i
t
u
t
e
d, m
e
r
e
p
r
e
p
o
nd
e
r
a
n
ce
 
o
e
vid
e
n
ce
is suffi
c
i
e
n
t
.b)
 
If 
a
 
criminal case
is b
ro
ug
ht
(
a
nd wi
th
i
t
,
th
e
 
c
ivi
l
 
ca
s
e
),
th
e
gui
l
t
mus
t
b
e
 
e
s
t
a
b
l
is
h
e
d b
y
p
roo
f b
e
yo
nd
r
ea
s
o
n
a
b
le
d
o
ub
t
.
OBLIGATIONS EX 
Q
UASI-DELI 
TS OR EX 
Q
UASI-MALEFI 
IO
Art. 1162. Obligations derived from quasi-delicts shall begoverned by the provisions of Chapter 2, Title X
V
II of thisBook, and by special laws.
Q
uasi-delict: (tort 
o
culpa aquiliana)
 
a
a
u
l
t
 
or
 
ac
t
 
o
n
e
g
l
ig
e
n
ce
(
or
 
o
missi
o
n
o
ca
r
e
) w
h
i
c
h
 
ca
us
e
s d
a
m
a
g
e
s
to
 
a
n
oth
e
r
,
th
e
r
e
b
e
ing n
o
p
r
ee
xis
t
ing
c
o
n
tr
ac
t
u
al
 
r
ela
t
i
o
nsb
e
t
w
ee
n
th
e
p
a
rt
i
e
s.
Negligence:
 
N
e
g
l
ig
e
n
ce
is
th
e
a
i
l
u
r
e
 
to
 
o
bs
e
r
v
e
, f 
or
 
th
e
 p
rot
ec
t
i
o
n
o
th
e
in
t
e
r
e
s
t
s
o
a
n
oth
e
r
p
e
r
s
o
n,
th
a
t
d
e
g
r
ee
 
o
ca
r
e
, p
r
eca
u
t
i
o
n
a
nd vigi
la
n
ce
w
h
i
c
h
 
th
e
 
c
i
r
c
ums
t
a
n
ce
s jus
t
l
y
 d
e
m
a
nd, w
h
e
r
e
b
y
su
c
h
 
oth
e
r
p
e
r
s
o
n suff 
e
r
s inju
ry
.
 N
e
g
l
ig
e
n
ce
is
th
e
 
o
missi
o
n
o
th
a
t
di
l
ig
e
n
ce
w
h
i
c
h
is
r
eq
ui
r
e
db
y
 
th
e
 
c
i
r
c
ums
t
a
n
ce
s
o
f p
e
r
s
o
n, p
lace
,
a
nd
t
im
e
. T
h
us,n
e
g
l
ig
e
n
ce
is
a
 
q
u
e
s
t
i
o
n
o
f f 
ac
t
(Civi
l
C
o
d
e
).
Test:
w
o
u
l
d
a
p
r
ud
e
n
t
m
a
n f 
or
e
s
ee
 
h
a
r
m
to
 
th
e
p
e
r
s
o
ninju
r
e
d
a
s
a
 
r
ea
s
o
n
a
b
le
 
c
o
ns
eq
u
e
n
ce
 
o
th
e
 
c
o
u
r
s
e
 
a
b
o
u
t
 
to
 b
e
pu
r
su
e
d
?
If s
o
,
th
e
 
la
w imp
o
s
e
s
a
du
ty
 
o
n
th
e
 
ac
tor
 
to
 
r
e
r
a
in f 
ro
m
th
e
 
c
o
u
r
s
e
,
or
 
to
 
t
ake
p
r
eca
u
t
i
o
n
a
g
a
ins
t
i
t
smis
c
h
i
e
v
o
us
r
e
su
l
t
s,
a
nd
th
e
a
i
l
u
r
e
 
to
d
o
s
o
 
c
o
ns
t
i
t
u
t
e
sn
e
g
l
ig
e
n
ce
. R
ea
s
o
n
a
b
le
or
e
sig
ht
 
o
h
a
r
m, f 
o
ll
o
w
e
d b
y
 
th
e
 ign
or
ing
o
th
e
 
a
dm
o
ni
t
i
o
n b
or
n
o
th
is p
ro
visi
o
n, is
th
e
 
c
o
ns
t
i
t
u
t
e
ac
t
 
o
f n
e
g
l
ig
e
n
ce
.
Requirements before a person can be
h
eld liable for a
Q
uasi-delict:
a
)
 
T
h
e
r
e
mus
t
b
e
a
u
l
t
 
or
n
e
g
l
ig
e
n
ce
 
a
ttr
ibu
t
a
b
le
 
to
 
th
e
 p
e
r
s
o
n
c
h
a
r
g
e
db)
 
T
h
e
r
e
mus
t
b
e
d
a
m
a
g
e
 
a
nd inju
ry
 
c
)
 
T
h
e
r
e
mus
t
b
e
 
a
di
r
ec
t
 
r
ela
t
i
o
n
o
ca
us
e
 
a
nd
e
ff 
ec
t
 b
e
t
w
ee
n
th
e
a
u
l
t
 
or
n
e
g
l
ig
e
n
ce
 
o
n
th
e
 
o
n
e
 
h
a
nd
a
nd
th
e
 d
a
m
a
g
e
 
or
inju
ry
 
o
n
th
e
 
oth
e
r
 
h
a
nd (p
ro
xim
a
t
e
 
ca
us
e
 w
h
i
c
h
is
th
e
 
a
d
eq
u
a
t
e
 
a
nd
e
ffi
c
i
e
n
t
 
ca
us
e
, w
h
i
c
h
in
th
e
 n
a
t
u
r
al
 
or
d
e
r
 
o
e
v
e
n
t
s, n
ece
ss
a
r
i
l
y
p
ro
du
ce
s
th
e
 d
a
m
a
g
e
s
or
inju
ry
 
c
o
mp
la
in
e
d
o
f)
Contractual Liability Quasi-
D
elict
T
h
e
r
e
is
al
r
ea
d
y
 
a
n
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
nw
h
i
c
h
 
e
xis
t
s p
r
i
or
 
to
 
or
 
e
v
e
nwi
tho
u
t
 
a
b
r
eac
h
. T
h
e
b
r
eac
h
 T
h
e
 
o
b
l
ig
a
t
i
o
n
a
r
is
e
s
o
n
l
y
 w
h
e
n
th
e
r
e
is
a
vi
o
la
t
i
o
n.Wi
tho
u
t
 
a
vi
o
la
t
i
o
n,
th
e
r
e
is

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