Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Aryan Footprint Among Turkic Nations

Aryan Footprint Among Turkic Nations

Ratings: (0)|Views: 2 |Likes:
Published by Üntaç Güner
Aryan footprint among Turkic nations
Aryan footprint among Turkic nations

More info:

Published by: Üntaç Güner on Jun 27, 2014
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





Aryan footprint among Turkic nations
 Aigul » 29
 2013, 14:49
Aryan footprint among Turkic nations
Zh.Sabitov: CA-NEWS (KG) - An Aryan footprint among Turkic nations Ref: http://i-news.kz/ news/2011/03/29/4265811.html
The main purpose of this article is to answer the question, why in many Turkic-speaking nations there are a high percentage of haplogroup R1a1. They include Altai, Kirghiz, Khakassian and other Asian and Central Asian nations. To understand from where there could appear R1a1, let's make an excursion into the history of the region.
Nations of Scythian world
Scythian-Saka tribes were likely heirs of Andronov culture, and quite possibly were the carriers of haplogroup R1a1.
Scythians began to appear in historical sources, for the first time, since the end of 8th century BC. Approximately 720 years BC, Scythians came to the Pontic steppes from the East, displacing the Cimmerians from their homeland. Cimmerians ("gimmiri" in Assyrian sources), beating the Black Sea through the Bosporus invaded in Asia Minor, and the Scythians (known in Assyrian sources as "Ishkuza"), through the Caucasus invaded in Iran and fought with Assyria. Their advance was stopped by Sargon II (722-705). In 676 year, the new advance of the Scythians was stopped by the Assyrian king Esarhaddon. [1]. But about 657 year, Scythians won Sardi, plundering Lydian kingdom. [2]
According to Herodotus, the Scythians ruled in Asia during 28 years (653-625), holding in its dependence Midia and other countries. [2] One of the Scythians of this period, 2600 years ago, could become an ancestor of one of the clans R1a1 in Anatolia. Exactly this date shows the consideration of set of 36 nine marker haplotypes R1a1 in Anatolia, with the ancestral haplotype [3] 13-25-16-10-X-Y-Z-12-10-13-11-30
It is interesting that set of 26 haplotypes of Russia, Ukraine and Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan) converges to the same ancestral haplotype
that is identical to haplotype above (supposed Scythian) and shows the lifetime of a common ancestor 4,500 years ago. [4] Naturally, 4500 years ago, there were not Scythians as such, but their common ancestor can be seen from this comparison of haplotypes.
Later Scythians went to war against Egypt, where Pharaoh Psammetih I was able to buy off from them. In 612 BC, Scythians, as part of Coalition against the Assyria, took Ninevia, thus putting the end to the Assyria state. Part of the Scythians settled down in the Middle East in the Beth-Sana, which was called Scythopolis and inhabitants of which, at the beginning of the first century AD, knew their Scythian origin [1].
The king of the Medes Cyaxares could put the end to Mussels dependence from the Scythians. He invited many Scythians, gave them drink that they become drunk and killed them. [5] After this, the Scythians were forced to leave the Asia and return to the Black Sea. [6]
The data about the Scythians are contained in two groups of sources: ancient and Persian. Herodotus, speaking of the Scythians, uses this term as applied to the-Black Sea Scythians. However, he gives the following words: "This tribe was called amyurgiyskie Sakas, because Persians called all the Scythians as Sakas." It follows that the ethnonym “Sak” was synonymous of the term “Skiff”.
According to the Persian sources there were three groups of Sakas:
1. Saks - tiia-paradaraya (Saks, who lived at sea) - Black Sea Scythians in the Greek sources. As is known, they came from East, pushing Cimmerians to the South. It was this group that invaded in Asia Minor and in the Middle East.
Aryan footprint among Turkic nations2. Saks-tigrahauda (Saks, who wore pointed hats). They were known among the Greeks as Saks-ortokaribantii. Scientists still argue about localization of this tribe, but, most of all, the aria of their resettlement was the south of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tashkent region.
3. Saks-haomavarga (Saks, who cooked drink “haoma”). Haoma (“Soma” in Indian mythology) – is a ritual drink in honor of the eponymous god , that has a narcotic, hallucinogenic properties 1. Haomavarg saks resided mostly in territory of modern Tajikistan, and were known in Greek sources as amyurgiyskie Sakas.
In the sources was mentioned another group of Saks, Saks - tiya para Sugdam (Saks, who lived at the Soghdom), but about it little is known. [7] Later, after a few centuries, there was the tribe called sakarauki (brilliant Saks).
Necessary to think that the relationship between Saks and India were very strong: in the time of Seleucids many Saka tribes invaded to the South, founding small kingdoms in India and Pakistan. It may be noted the fact that the Buddha (Gautama Shakyamuni) came from the Shakya tribe which probably was one of the Sakian clans that caught in India. The fact of the identity of the Sakian god - Haoma and Indian god - Soma confirms cultural proximity of Saks and Hindus. Saks were the people, against which were directed antidevovskie inscriptions of Persian rulers. Necessary to think that they, like the Indians kept the faith in devas, in opposed to the Persians, who were followers of Ahura Mazda (ahura, asuras).
Herodotus speaks of the age of Scythians as follows: "According to the Scythian stories, their people are the youngest one. Because since the first king Targitai until the invasion in their land of Darius passed 1000 years [8], we can assume that the Scythians as an ethnic group emerged about 3500 years ago. Herodotus also mentions about self-name of the Scythians in the following words: "All together they are called Skolots, i.e. Royal. Hellenes also called them as Scythians "[8].
Shall present the data of Herodotus about Savromat tribe. They resided to the East of the Black Sea Scythians, in the area of Western Kazakhstan, and were a tribe, wedged themselves between the Central Asian Saks and Black Sea Scythians. According to Herodotus, Savromats were descendants of Amazon women who migrated from Asia Minor, and young Scythians, who became fathers of Savromat. [9] Savromats were the ancestors of the Sarmatians and Alans, and other smaller tribes. Savromat culture differed from the Scythian, but its haplogroup is likely to be identical to the Scythians.
The fate of the Scythians was sad. In the Black Sea, they became to endure defeat from the Sarmatians, and in the end, lost its independence. Is known that in Central Asian Saks were conquered and became part of the Usun people . [10] As for the Sarmatian tribes, many of them participated in the Great Migration. Sarmatian tribes Alans (yasy), roksalany, Yazygs, aorsy settled all over the Europe from Caucasus and Hungary to the North Africa. In the era of of the Great Migration the Alans were single non-German people, who created in Western Europe, a large number of settlements and several government entities. Only in France and Nothern Italy today is known about 300 cities and settlements with Alanian names.
Alans also lived in the territory of modern Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, Romania and other countries. Later Alans again migrated, and in Hungary there is a historical region - Yasshag where lived ethnic Alans.
Speaking about the Scythian tribes we must also mention about Massagets, Dayans and Parns. According to Klyashtorn S G [11], Dayan tribes and massagets were one tribe. Later Parns, one of the daian tribes headed by Arshakid kin, were able to establish the Parthia state in Iran .
Kangly (Kanguy, Kangha)
Although in different sources Kangha country appears from 14 century BC, the rise of the "House of Kahn" begins from the 03- 02 centuries BC. Possessions of Yan (Sarmatians) and
Aryan footprint among Turkic nationsYantsay (Alans) were subordinated to this country of 600 thousand people [12] at the end of the 2nd century BC. Kang-kü state with its capital Bityan was located near the Syrdarian area. In 6 century BC kangyuy tribes were included in Turkic Kaganate where were known as Badjanak and kangar2.
In the middle of eighth century, Badjanak (Kangly) were driven out from their homeland by Oghuz tribes. Part of Kangly were forced to emigrate to the West, some obeyed to Oguz, the rest went to the Kipchaks. Departing to the west, Badjanaks, who were pushed from the east by enemies, come close to the borders of the Byzantine Empire and Kievan Rus. In the chronicles they became known as the Pechenegs (modified form from Badjanak). The descendants of those Pechenegs were later driven out in Eastern Europe after the defeat that was massacre carried by Cumans (Kipchaks). The descendants of the same tribe Kangly who remained among Oguzes and Kipchaks remained to this day among the Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Bashkirs and others.
Dinlinsk problem (R1a and R1b)
In 1909, Grum - Grzhimaylo published an article "Blond race in Central Asia", in which, based on Chinese sources, was of the opinion that at the beginning of Chinese history white men were widespread in Asia.
In 1959, in the tidings of the All-Union Geographical Society of the USSR (
 1) L N Gumilev published an article, where based on the data of paleoanthropology and history, conducted an audit of Grum - Grzhimailian hypothesis. Let us quote an excerpt from it: "Debez believes that dolichocephalic South Siberian type, i.e. dinlins, is ancestor of Europeans, "close to the Cro-Magnon", and its similarity with the "northern type" explains by convergence. Indeed, this type goes back to antiquity, predating the formation time of the Aryan linguistic unity (the middle of the III millennium). However, he notes europoid brachicranial type, mixed with Mongoloid narrow-faced type, and this mixture gets to Siberia from China approximately in the XVII century. BC ("Karasuktsy"). At this time, the Chinese history ascertains the eviction from China to the north of supporters of the overthrown of the Xia Dynasty. In 1764 BC, Tsarevich Shun Wei and his companions settled with the nomads and took their lifestyle. The legend is confirmed by archeology, but they both support the hypothesis of Grumm - Grzhimailo. Obviously, brachicranial Europeoid type was brought from China by di. Another variety of di - Usuns - also short head "[13].
The basic conclusions of LN Gumilev were:
1. The ancient white race in Central Asia really existed. South Siberian dolichocephalic (dinlins) and Northern China brachycephalic (di) treated each other as the race of the second order of the European racial barrel.
2. Dinlins, being a branch that rejected yet in the Paleolithic, did not have the direct connection with the Europeans, 3. Steppe dinlins became part of Huns, giving them several Europeoid features (high noses, fluffy beard), and steppe descendants of di were usuns and tele. [13]
But we, based on new data of DNA genealogy, wanted to offer our interpretation of events.
We believe that an anthropological similarity of Europeans and Asian dinlins was the result not of convergence, and that the European carriers of haplogroup R1b were akin to the dinlins. Recall that one of the major haplogroups of Western European (and some Asian) populations is R1b. According to the AA Klesov, ancestor of European R1b come to Europe 4000-4500 years ago, and haplogroup itself appeared in the Asia 16,000 years ago. [14]
As a working hypothesis, we can assume that dinlins were carriers of R1b haplogroup, while the northern Chinese di tribes were owners of haplogroup R1a. As is known, di tribes and zhuns coexisted with the Chinese people. There is a very informed opinion that the Chinese chariots, together with animal style in art and some bronze instruments, were borrowed from north-

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->