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Endocrine Nursing

Endocrine Nursing



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Published by FreeNursingNotes
Endocrine nursing notes
f you have questions please email me> freenursingnotes@yahoo.com
Endocrine nursing notes
f you have questions please email me> freenursingnotes@yahoo.com

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Published by: FreeNursingNotes on Nov 26, 2009
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The ANATOMY of the Endocrine System
 The endocrine system is composed of ductless glands that release theirhormones directly into the bloodstream The Hypothalamus controls most of the endocrinal activity of the pituitarygland The pituitary gland controls most of the activities of the other endocrineglands
The Hypothalamus
 This part of the DIENCEPHALON is located below the thalamus and isconnected to the pituitary gland by a stalk The PHYSIOLOGY of the Endocrine System: HypothalamusSecretes RELEASING HORMONES for the pituitary glandSecretes OXYTOCIN that is stored in the Posterior pituitary glandSecretes Anti-Diuretic Hormone or VASOPRESSIN that is stored also in theposterior pituitary gland
The Pituitary Gland
Is a gland located below the hypothalamus at the base of the brain The optic chiasm passes over this structureIs divided into two parts- the anterior or adenohypophysis and theposterior or the neurohypophysisAnterior Pituitary secretes the following hormones:1. Growth hormone2. Prolactin3. Gonadotrophins- LH and FSH4. Stimulating hormones and trophic hormonesACTH TSHMSPosterior Pituitary stores and releases1. OXYTOCIN2. ADH/Vasopressin
The THYROID gland
Located in the anterior neck lateral to the tracheaContains two lobes connected by the isthmusMicroscopically composed of thyroid follicles where the hormones are
produced and stored The PHYSIOLOGY of the Endocrine System: ThyroidProduces the thyroid hormones by the thyroid follicles:1. Tri-iodothyronine or T32. Tetra-iodothyronine or thyroxine or T4 The Parafollicular cells secrete CALCITONIN
The PARAthyroid glands
Located at the back of the thyroid glandsFour in numberSecretes PARATHYROID hormone (PTH) that controls calcium andphosphorus levels The ANATOMY of the Endocrine System
The Adrenal Glands
Located above the kidneysComposed of two parts- the outer Adrenal Cortex and the inner Adrenalmedulla
 Adrenal Cortex 
Secretes three types of STERIOD hormones1. Glucocorticoids- like Cortisol, cortisone and corticosterone2. Mineralocorticoids- like Aldosterone3. Sex hormones- like estrogen and testosterone
 Adrenal Medulla
Essentially a part of the SYMPATHETIC autonomic systemSecretes Adrenergic Hormones:1. Epinephrine2. Nor-epinephrine
The Pancreas
 This retroperitoneal organ has both endocrine and exocrine functions The endocrine function resides in the ISLETS of Langerhans The islets have three types of cells- alpha, beta and delta cells The ALPHA cells secrete GLUCAGON The BETA cells secrete INSULIN The DELTA cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN The GONADS- Ovaries These two almond-shaped glands are found in the pelvic cavity attached
to the uterus by the ovarian ligament The GONADS- Testes These two oval-shaped glands are found in the scrotum
 The Ovaries contains Granulosa and Theca cells which secreteESTROGEN and Progesterone The testes contains Leydig cells that secrete Testosterone
Hormone Levels Assay
 These are blood examinations fro the levels of individual hormonesMeasurements can also be done after stimulation and suppression of the secretions- Stimulation and Suppression tests
Hormone Levels of T3/T4
Usually done to diagnose hypo/hyperthryroidismIf T3 is elevated, T4 is elevated and TSH is depressed- PrimaryHYPERthyroidismIf T3 is depressed,T4 is depressed and TSH is elevated- PrimaryHYPOthyoidism
Radio-Active iodine uptake (RAI)
 This is a thyroid function test to measure the absorption of theinjected iodine isotope by the thyroid tissueIncreased uptake may indicate HYPERfunctioning glandDecreased uptake my indicate HYPOfunctioning gland
Thyroid Scan
Performed to identify nodules or growth in the thyroid glandRAI is usedPretest- Check for pregnancy, Thyroid medication may be withheldtemporarily. NPO,Post-test- Ensure proper disposal of body wastes
Aids in the diagnosis of DiabetesPre-test; NPO for 8 hoursNormal FBS- 80-109 mg/dL
GLUCOSE tolerance test
Aids in the diagnosis of DM

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