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General Relativity and Cosmology for Undergraduates

General Relativity and Cosmology for Undergraduates

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Published by Emisa Rista

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categoriesTypes, Research, Science
Published by: Emisa Rista on Nov 26, 2009
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08/16/2013

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GENERAL RELATIVITY &COSMOLOGYfor Undergraduates
Professor John W. Norbury
Physics DepartmentUniversity of Wisconsin-MilwaukeeP.O. Box 413Milwaukee, WI 532011997
 
Contents
1 NEWTONIAN COSMOLOGY 5
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.2 Equation of State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51.2.1 Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.2.2 Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.3 Velocity and Acceleration Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71.4 Cosmological Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.4.1 Einstein Static Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2 APPLICATIONS 13
2.1 Conservation laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.2 Age of the Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142.3 Ination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.4 Quantum Cosmology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162.4.1 Derivation of the Schr¨odinger equation . . . . . . . . . 162.4.2 Wheeler-DeWitt equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.7 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202.8 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3 TENSORS 23
3.1 Contravariant and Covariant Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233.2 Higher Rank Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263.3 Review of Cartesian Tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273.4 Metric Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283.4.1 Special Relativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303.5 Christoel Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
 
2
CONTENTS 
3.6 Christoel Symbols and Metric Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363.7 Riemann Curvature Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393.9 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403.10 Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413.11 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4 ENERGY-MOMENTUM TENSOR 45
4.1 Euler-Lagrange and Hamilton’s Equations . . . . . . . . . . . 454.2 Classical Field Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474.2.1 Classical Klein-Gordon Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484.3 Principle of Least Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494.4 Energy-Momentum Tensor for Perfect Fluid . . . . . . . . . . 494.5 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514.6 Interacting Scalar Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514.7 Cosmology with the Scalar Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534.7.1 Alternative derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554.7.2 Limiting solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564.7.3 Exactly Solvable Model of Inflation . . . . . . . . . . . 594.7.4 Variable Cosmological Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614.7.5 Cosmological constant and Scalar Fields . . . . . . . . 634.7.6 Clarication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 644.7.7 Generic Inflation and Slow-Roll Approximation . . . . 654.7.8 Chaotic Inflation in Slow-Roll Approximation . . . . . 674.7.9 Density Fluctuations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 724.7.10 Equation of State for Variable Cosmological Constant 734.7.11 Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 774.8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
5 EINSTEIN FIELD EQUATIONS 83
5.1 Preview of Riemannian Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845.1.1 Polar Coordinate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 845.1.2 Volumes and Change of Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . 855.1.3 Dierential Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885.1.4 1-dimesional Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 895.1.5 2-dimensional Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925.1.6 3-dimensional Hypersurface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 965.2 Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995.2.1 Christoel Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

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