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CDMA

CDMA

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Published by: api-26830587 on Nov 26, 2009
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03/18/2014

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ABSTRACT
\u2022\u2022CDMA -OFDM \u2013MC-CDMA-PRINCIPLES-MERITS-DEMERITS.
CDMA -OFDM \u2013MC-CDMA-PRINCIPLES-MERITS-DEMERITS.
\u2022CHANNEL ESTIMATION-NEED-PRINCIPLE-
CHANNEL ESTIMATION-NEED-PRINCIPLE-
TECHNIQUES(Pilot)
TECHNIQUES(Pilot).
\u2022PROBLEMS IN UPLINK TRANSMISSION
PROBLEMS IN UPLINK TRANSMISSION.
\u2022TDD MC-CDMA \u2013PR
TDD MC-CDMA \u2013PRINCIPLES-POSSIBLE STRATEGIES.
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INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION

Over the past several years there has been increased interest in wireless
communication systems that use code division multiple access(CDMA).
The systems such as IS-95(Direct Sequence CDMA, DS-CDMA) and
UMPTS (Wide band CDMA, W-CDMA) already use CDMA based
techniques.

On the other hand, thanks to excellent multi carrier(MC) modulation
properties in the frequency selective fading radio channels, MC techniques
gained a lot of popularity lately. The orthogonal frequency division
multiplexing (OFDM) as the most common MC technique has been chosen
as the European standard for digital audio broadcasting(DAB) and as the
digital terrestrial video standard(DVB-T) (OFDM in DAB and DVB-T).
Following this, a lot of research was devoted to the usage of hybrid schemes
that use the benefits of both CDMA and MC. This led to the development
MC-CDMA, MC-DS-CDMA and similar techniques that are suited for
applications in future mobile communications.
The MC-CDMA proved to be a suitable technique for the down link
transmission . Uplink transmission, due to the more complex propagation
conditions, introduces additional problems which results in harder
applicability of MC-CDMA in uplink. The goal of this work is to explain
the problems involved in uplink transmission and to offer some solutions
which enable us to use modified MC-CDMA as an uplink transmission
technique. More over, time division duplex (TDD) MC-CDMA as a
promising transmission technique for next generation mobile radio systems
is presented.

The remaining part of the paper is organized as follows. In section II the
basic principles of CDMA, MC and hybrid techniques will be reviewed.
Then in section III the principle of the channel estimation in the downlink
MC-CDMA is presented. In section IV main problems that occur in the
uplink transmission are discussed. Section V introduces TDD MC-CDMA,
that uses pre-compensation algorithm in order to overcome some of the

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problems that occur in uplink transmission. Possible TDD MC-CDMA strategies are presented in section VI. Finally conclusions are given in section VII.

Basic principles of CDMA,MC and hybrid techniques
\u2022DS-CDMA
FIGURE 1: Direct sequence multiple access principle.

The above figure shows the structure of DS-CDMA transmitter and
receiver.In DS-CDMA each user is assigned a unique code sequence.
information signal is multiplied by the code signal. For multiple access, the
resulting signals for every user are added together and modulated by a RF
carrier for transmission .upon reception,the received signal is first
demodulated and then multiplied by the unique code signal again and finally
passed through a low pass filter to recover the original data .

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