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Gastrointestinal Communicable Diseases

Gastrointestinal Communicable Diseases

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Published by: FreeNursingNotes on Nov 26, 2009
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GASTROINTESTINAL communicable diseasesLEPTOSPIROSIS/WEILS DISEASE/CANICOLA FEVER/MUD FEVER/SWINEHERD’S DISEASECausative Agent: Leptospira interrogansMode of Transmission:Inoculation into broken skin, mucous membraneingestion of urine/fecally contaminated food and water Source of InfectionUrine and excreta of rodents, infected farm and pet animalsIncubation Period: 7 – 13 daysLEPTOSPIROSISSigns and Symptoms:Septicimic Stage - High remittent fever, myalgia/myosites, particularly calf pain,abdominal painAnicteric Stage – conjuctival suffusion, disorientationIcteric Stage - acute renal failureDiagnostic Examination:1. Blood culture2. Leprospira agglutination test LAT)Treatment: Penicillin or Tetracycline Nursing Care:1. Symptomatic 3. Environmental Sanitation2. Urine precautionPrevention: Eradication of rodentsTYPHOID FEVER/ENTERIC FEVER Causative Agent: Salmonella TyphosaMode of Transmission: Fecal – oral, Principle vehicle is food and water. Direct/IndirectcontactIncubation: 7-14 daysSource of infection: Feces and urine of infectedPeriod of communicability – first week throughout the convalescence.TYPHOID FEVER Signs and Symptoms:1. Prodromal: headache, fever, anorexia, lethargy, constipation or diarrhea, vomitingabdominal pain, feeling of unwellness2. Fastigial: ladder-like curve of temperature, rose spots, spleenomegaly, typhoid state3. Defervescence: fever gradually subsides, severity of previous conditions onset of complications:1) Hemorrhage and 2) Peritonitis4. Lysis/Convalescence: signs and symptoms gradually disappear TYPHOID FEVER Diagnostic Examinations:HemocultureWidal’s test/Typhidot
 
Stool examRectal swabTreatment: Chloramphenicol Nursing Care:1. Enteric precaution2. Observe character of stoolPrevention:Avoid MOTHandwashingImmunizationTYHPHOD FEVER Prevention: Sanitary disposal of feces, handwashing, fly control to protect foods,isolation, avoid eating, raw, unpeeled, uncooked foods Nursing Responsibility: Teach family, guide and supervise members of the family.CHOLERACausative Agent: Vibrio-Cholerae (El Tor); vibrio commaMode of Transmission: Fecal oralIncubation: 1 – 3 daysSigns and Symptoms:rapid onset characterized by explosive or watery diarrhea and vomitingsymptoms of severe dehydration: washer woman’s hand, etc.stool: rice-water stoolCHOLERATreatment: IVFTetracycline, Cotrimoxazole Nursing Care: Enteric PrecautionPrevention: 5 F (Feces, Flies, Food, fluids, fomites)DYSENTERY/SHIGELLOSISCausative Agent: Shigella DysenteriaeMode of Transmission: Fecally contaminated food and water Incubation: 3 – 4 daysSigns and Symptoms:High grade fever colicky abdominal pain with tendernessdiarrhea with tenesmus-straining (watery, mucoid, with blood streaks)DYSENTERYDiagnostic Examination: Stool examTreatment: Co-trimoxazole, Chloramphenicol Nursing Care:Monitor I and O – frequency and amount, consistency of stoolReplacement of fluids and electrolytes lost with IVF as ordered, ORESOL, oral fluidsEnteric precautionPeri-anal carePrevention:Immunization
 
Good sanitation/hygienic practicesSafe water supplyHandwashingAvoid 5 F’s – feces, fomites, flies, food, fluidsHEPATITIS ASynonyms – Infectious HEPACausative Agent – HAVSource of Infection - FecesMode of Trans. - Fecal – oralIncubation period- 2 – 7 weeksTYPES OF HEPATITISTYPESOURCETRANSMISSIONOTHER NAMEANTIBODYHbsAgRISK PERSONSCOMPLICATIONSHEPATITIS ARisk - food handlers, poor sanitation, unsafe water supplyPrevention - Proper handwashing, sanitation, screen food handlers, enteric precautionsHEPA BSynonyms- Serum hepatitisCausative Agent- HBVSource of Infection -Blood, semen, cervical secretionsMode of Trans. - Person to person parenteral/percutaneous, placentalIncubation period- 6 wks – 6 mos.HEPA BRisk - Multiple sex partners, members of medical team, blood, drug addicts, Screen blooddonors Immunization Use of sterile disposal needlesPrevention - Monogamous sexHEPA CSynonyms- Post-transfusion,

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