Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more ➡
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Add note
Save to My Library
Sync to mobile
Look up keyword
Like this
17Activity
×
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

Ratings: (0)|Views: 628|Likes:
Published by api-3822433

More info:

Published by: api-3822433 on Nov 26, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, DOC, TXT or read online from Scribd
See More
See less

03/18/2014

pdf

text

original

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
-A chronic, progressive disease of unknown etiology affecting the central nervous system.
-Young adults 20-40 Years-old / Increase in women and men in northern climates
ETIOLOGY
\u2022
Do not really know
\u2022
May be Viral infection or Autoimmune response
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
\u2022

Degeneration of myelin sheath with resulting nerve degeneration. Patchy areas involved become
sclerosed, and the flow of nerve impulses is interrupted. Manifestations presented dependent upon
nerves affected. The optic nerves, chiasm tracts, cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem, and the
spinal cord most often affected.

\u2022
Manifestations presented depend on nerves affected
\u2022
The optic nerve, chaism tracts, cerebrum, cerebellum and white matter of the brain stem, and the
spinal cord are most often affected
\u2022
Impulse is proper or not at all \u2013 Short circuit
CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
\u2022
Fatigue
\u2022
Weakness
\u2022
Numbness
\u2022
Coordination difficulties, and loss of balance
\u2022
Diplopia \u2013 Blurred vision
\u2022
Scotoma - Spots before the eyes
\u2022
Cognitive and psychosocial problems
\u2022
Emotional Instability
o
Euphoria, depression \u2013 mood swings
\u2022
Bowel and Bladder
\u2022
Sexual problems
\u2022
Will also have exacerbations and remissions (give Corticosteroids)
As The Disease Progresses They Will Have:
o
Nystagmus \u2013 constant movement of the eyeballs
o
Scanning speech disorder \u2013 slurred slow type speech
o
Urinary incontinence and frequency
o
Changes in muscular coordination and gait
Late Manifestations
o
Urinary retention or incontinence
o
Pressure ulcers
o
Severe muscle spasms
o
Spastisity ataxic gait \u2013 unable to walk
o
Spastic paraplegia with slight speech disturbance
o
Pain not common (only with muscle spasms)
Hazards of Immobility
o
UTI\u2019s
o
Constipation
o
Pressure ulcers
o
Contracture deformities
o
Pneumonia and Depression
PROGNOSIS
\u2022
Can live 12-25 years after diagnosis, after 10 yr 1/3 won\u2019t have any disabilities, 1/3 slight, 1/3 severe.
\u2022
No record of recovery
\u2022
Patient usually dies from some sort of respiratory infection or GI problem
\u2022
The more often the person had the symptoms the more they progress \u2013 get worse with exacerbations
MANAGEMENT
\u2022
Prevent and treat muscle spastisity
\u2022
Prevent skin breakdown and any problems with immobility
\u2022
Presently, no cure.
\u2022
Assistance to overcome the effects of incoordination and ability to get around
\u2022
Keep active but nothing that requires quick reaction time
\u2022
Prevent complications and work with symptoms
\u2022
Provide support
\u2022
Frequent rest periods
\u2022
Treatment aimed at relieving patient symptoms and providing support
\u2022
May be on steroid therapy at time of exacerbation
\u2022
Corticosteroids and ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) may improve nerve
conduction due to anti-inflammatory properties
\u2022
Azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, and interferon are immunosuppressive drugs used
to reduce progression of disease as well as decrease exacerbations.
\u2022
Baclofen \u2013 Treatment for spasticity
\u2022
Well balanced diet, appropriate foods with increase vitamins and fluids
\u2022
Assist family and patient with dealing with stress and dealing with disease
\u2022
Peaceful environment
\u2022
Bladder & Bowel management most difficult problems
o
Patient may not be able to:
\ue000
Store urine \u2013 Hyperreflexic
\ue000
Empty bladder \u2013 Hyporeflexic
\ue000
Have a combination of both at times
\ue000
May get antibiotics prophilactically to prevent UTI
\u2022
Antibiotics are administered as well as ascorbic acid to reduce bacterial growth
\u2022
They can have intellectual impairment
DIAGNOSIS
\u2022
MRI \u2013 the primary diagnostic aid for detecting small plaques and determining course and
treatment of disease.
\u2022
CSF of 95% of patients reveals abnormal IgG antibodies
\u2022
Cognitive impairment assessed with neuropsychological testing
NURSING DIAGNOSIS
\u2022
Physical mobility impairment
\u2022
HRF Injury \u2013 due to gait problems
\u2022
Urinary and bowel elimination impairment
\u2022
Altered thought processes
\u2022
Ineffective coping

Activity (17)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
Manelle Singzon liked this
Manelle Singzon liked this
Maui Berganio liked this
angelfire_ritzie liked this
miramirz liked this
faithopelove liked this
tessacruz1186 liked this
djanggo18 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->