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Fascism in Europe - an unique phenomenon

Fascism in Europe - an unique phenomenon

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Published by: api-19624225 on Nov 27, 2009
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Daniel Coman
Resul Rzayev
Szilard-Istvan Papp
Razvan Voicu
Horatiu Nica

1. Introduction
2. Italy \u2013 the cradle of fascism
3. Nazism
4. Limits of fascism
5.Extremism in Romania
6. The nationalist movements in Hungary

7. Ideology
8. Conclusion
9. References

Fascism in Europe \u2013 a unique phenomenon
1. Introduction

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries nationalism in Europe took various forms, on one hand with the so called \u2018nation-building\u2019 nationalism, on the other with radical nationalism. In this essay we shall try to investigate the extreme form of this movement, namely the fascism.

The term \u2018fascism\u2019 does not have a unique definition, because it had several manifestations that differ. Establishing a sharp definition is more difficult due to the fact that in the period after the First World War a tendency to \u201capply the term \u2018fascism\u2019 or \u2018fascist\u2019 to any form of

right-wing authoritarian movement or system\u201d1 appeared. Morover, the Soviet Stalinists
started to use the term for every political enemy. Nevertheless a limited consensus exists
about the main characteristics of fascism. Thus, \u201cfascism may be defined as a form of organic

revolutionary ultra-nationalism seeking national rebirth, based on a primarily vitalist and non-rationalist philosophy, structured on a seemingly contradictory combination of extreme elitism and mass mobilisation, emphasising hierarchy and the leadership principle, positively valuing violence to some extent as end as well as means, and tending to normalise war and/or military virtues\u201d2. Another definition is provided by John Breuilly: fascism is a \u201cradical, anti- bourgeois, anti-liberal, anti-marxist movement of national-imperialist integration\u201d.3These

two definitions also describe the main ideological characteristics of fascism. Though the ruling positions are occupied by a small group of \u2018chosen ones\u2019, fascism is based on popular support and mobilization. Fascists used several methods, which were not traditional political methods, but by those they managed to obtain the support of the population. Among these means are marches, demonstrations, and street fighting. Fascists positively valued heroism and military virtues and tended to normalize this in the whole society.

1 BALL, Terence and BELLAMY, Richard, eds., 2003, The Cambridge History of Twentieth \u2013 Century Political
Thought, Cambridge University Press, p. 123
2BALL, Terence and BELLAMY, Richard, eds., 2003, The Cambridge History of Twentieth \u2013 Century Political
Thought, Cambridge University Press, p. 124
3 BREUILLY, John, 1993, Nationalism and the State, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, p. 290

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