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All Optical Signal Processing of Optical Fiber Raman Amplifiers in Advanced Photonic Communications Engineering

All Optical Signal Processing of Optical Fiber Raman Amplifiers in Advanced Photonic Communications Engineering

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Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 25, Issue 2, June 2014 www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk
Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 25, Issue 2, June 2014 www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk

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JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 25, ISSUE 2, JUNE 2014
12© 2014 JOT www.ournaloftelecommunications.co.uk
All Optical Signal Processing of Optical Fiber Raman Amplifiers in Advanced Photonic Communications Engineering
Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed
1*
, Ibrahim M. El-Dokany
2
, Abd El–Naser A. Mohamed
3
, and Sarah El-Tahan
4
 
Abstract
 
This paper has presented the transmission systems with employing Raman amplifier technology have to put up with much higher level of design complexities, when compared to conventional transmission lines with doped fiber optical amplifier. Even for the construction of a fundamental, basic building block a unit of a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA), the designer have to struggle with the problems associated with the interactions between pump/signal waves mediated by Raman process, have to wander within the vast degrees of freedom given the choice of pumping directions/ratios, and have to contemplate with the wavelength dependent fiber loss/noise figure profiles in different fiber cable medias such as true wave reach fiber, freelight, and single mode fiber (SMF).
Index Terms
 
Optical signal processing, Performance signature, Raman Amplifiers, and Advanced photonic Communications Engineering.
——————————
 
!
 
——————————
1.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 
W
avelength division multiplexing (WDM) is  basically frequency division multiplexing in the optical frequency domain, where on a single optical fiber there are multiple communication channels at different wavelengths [1]. A WDM system uses a multiplexer at the transmitter to join the signals together and a demultiplexer at the receiver to split them apart. By using WDM and optical amplifiers, they can accommodate several generations of technology development in their optical infrastructure [2]. Optical gain depends on the frequency of the incident signal and also on the local  beam intensity. Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is a technology that puts data from different sources together on an optical fiber, with each signal carried at the same time on its own separate light wavelength [3]. Optical amplifiers have several advantages over regenerators. Optical amplifiers can be more easily upgraded to a higher bit rate. In an optical communication system, as the optical signals from the transmitter propagate through optical fiber are attenuated  by it and losses are added by other optical components, such as multiplexers and couplers which causes the signal to become too weak to be detected. Before this the signal strength has to be regenerated [4]. Most optical amplifiers amplify incident light through stimulated emission, its main ingredient is the optical gain realized when the amplifier is pumped to achieve population inversion. The optical gain, in general, depends not only on the frequency of the incident signal,  but also on the local beam intensity at any point inside the amplifier [5]. To understand how optical amplification works, the mutual or reciprocal action of electromagnetic radiation with matter must be understood [6]. Optical amplification uses the principle of stimulated emission same as used in a laser. Optical amplifiers can be divided into two basic classes: optical fiber amplifiers (OFAs) and semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) [1]. An amplifier can boost the (average) power of a laser output to higher levels. It can generate extremely high peak powers, particularly in ultra short pulses, if the stored energy is extracted within a short time. It can amplify weak signals  before photo detection, and thus reduce the detection noise, unless the added amplifier noise is large. In long fiber-optic links for optical fiber communications, the optical power level has to be raised between long sections of fiber before the information is lost in the noise. The combination of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) is called a hybrid amplifier (HA), the Raman-EDFA. Hybrid amplifier provides high power gain. Raman amplifier is better  because it provides distributed amplification within the fiber. Distributed amplification uses the transmission fiber as the gain medium by multiplexing a pump wavelength and signal wavelength. It increases the length of spans between the amplifiers and regeneration sites. So this provides amplification over wider and different regions [7]. Hybrid Raman/erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (HFAs) are an advance technology for future. Hybrid Raman/erbium doped fiber amplifiers are designed to maximize the long-haul transmission distance. In the present study, performance signature and all optical signal processing of optical Raman amplifiers in photonic communications engineering have deeply studied over wide range of the affecting parameters. Transmitted signal and pumping powers in forward,  backward, and dual pumping configurations can be theoretically studied. Raman gain will be analyzed in
 ———————————————— 
 
 
Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed (Corresponding author) is with electronics and Electrical Communications engineering department,  faculty of electronic engineering, menouf 32951, menoufia university, EGYPT.
 
Ibrahim el-dokany Abd elnaser A. Mohammed and Sarah El-tahan are with electronics and Electrical Communications engineering department, faculty of electronic engineering, menouf 32951, menoufia university, EGYPT..
 
JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 25, ISSUE 2, JUNE 2014
13© 2014 JOT www.ournaloftelecommunications.co.uk
 both forward and backward. Raman amplifier can be thought as more of a loss compensator than an amplifier. Hence we normally expect all the signals to come out of the amplifier with same signal strength with which they entered it. For that we ideally require a flat gain profile. By adjusting the powers and wavelengths of multiple pumps employed this profile is achieved. 
2.
 
B
ASIC
R
AMAN
A
MPLIFIERS WITH
M
ULTIPLEXING
 /D
EMULTIPLEXING
T
ECHNIQUES
 
A schematic view of the configuration of Raman amplifiers with multiplexing and demultiplexing techniques are shown in Fig. A [7]. It is provided with arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) devices which act as multiplexing unit in the transmitting side, and act as demultiplexing unit in the receiving side. Basically, pumped light and signal light are input to a single amplifier fiber, and amplification is effected by means of the stimulated scattering that occurs in the fiber.
Fig. A. Schematic view of Raman amplifier with multiplexing and demultiplexing techniques.
Figure A shows a configuration in which pumped light propagates bi-directionally in the distributed Raman amplifier, but sometimes it propagates in the same direction as the light signal (forward pumping) or the opposite direction (backward pumping). Moreover the system is provided with band pass filter (BPF) and AWG devices. Generally, speaking with forward pumping, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) can be kept high, while with  backward pumping the saturation output power can be increased. In the case of a Raman amplifier the process of optical amplification takes place so rapidly that, unless the intensity noise of the forward pumping light is sufficiently small, the pumping light noise will be transferred to the signal light resulting in increasing transmission bit error rate (BER). Thus in many cases only  backward pumping is used [8].
3.
 
M
ODEL AND
E
QUATIONS
A
NALYSIS
 
The evolution of the input signal power (Ps) and the input pump power (Pp) propagating along the single mode optical fiber in watt; can be quantitatively described  by different equations called propagation equations. The rate of change of signal and pump power with the distance z, can be expressed as mentioned in [9]:
)()()(
Re
  P  z  P  g  z  P  dz dP 
 p s ff   p s p Lp p
 ##
=
(1)
)()()(
Re
  P  z  P  g  z  P  dz dP 
 p s ff   p s s Ls s
 +
#
=
(2) Where
!
s and
!
p are the signal and pump wavelengths in µm respectively, z is the distance in km from z=0 to z=L,
!
Ls and
!
Lp are the linear attenuation coefficient of the signal and pump power in the optical fiber in km-1 respectively. Where
!
 is the attenuation coefficient in dB/km. gReff is the Raman gain efficiency in W/km of the fiber cable length, L in km, which is a critical design issue and is given by the following equation:
( )
18Reff 
10 =g
!
"
eff   R
 A g 
 (3) Where gR is the maximum Raman gain in km/W, Aeff the effective area of the fiber cable used in the amplification in µm2. Equation (1) can be solved when  both sides of the equation are integrated. When using forward pumping, the pump power can be expressed as the following expression [10]:
)
  P  z  P 
 Lp poF  PF 
 
"
=
 exp
 (4) Where PPoF is the input pump power in the forward direction in watt at z=0. In the backward pumping the pump power is given by [11]:
( ) ( )
 z  L P  z  P 
 Lp poB PB
 !!
=
 
exp
 (5) where PPoB , is the input pump power in the backward direction in watt at z=L. In the case of bi-directional pump both of the pump can be equal or different in the
s1
 
s3
 
s(n-1)
 
sn
 
s1
 
s2
 
s3
 
s(n-1)
 
sn
 
Transmitters Receivers Optical fiber spans
Z L 0
 
Backward Pump
BPF
Forward Pump
P
P-
 (L) P
P+
 (L) P
S
(L) P
S
(0)
s2
 
 
JOURNAL OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS, VOLUME 25, ISSUE 2, JUNE 2014
14© 2014 JOT www.ournaloftelecommunications.co.uk
used wavelength or the used amount of power, therefore in this case the following equation can be used to calculate the pump power at point z [11, 12]:
( ) ( ) ( )
 z  L P rf   z  P rf   z  P 
 Lp poB Lp poF  PFB
 !!!
+
!
=
 
 exp1exp)(
 (6) Where rf is the percentage of pump power launched in the forward direction. If the values of PP are substituted in differential Eq. 2, and is integrated from z=0 to z=L for the signal power in the forward and the backward pumping the result mathematical equation can be written as mentioned in [13]:
( )
!!"#$$%&'(()*++,-
=
  L P  A g  P  z  P 
 Lseff   poeff   R so
 
exp
(7) Where Pso and Ppo denotes to the input signal and pump power respectively. This means that Ppo= PpoF in case of forward pump and Ppo=PpoB in case of backward pump, and Leff, is the effective length in km, over which the nonlinearities still holds or stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) occurs in the fiber and is defined as [14]:
 Lp Lpeff  
 z  L
""
=
exp1
 (8) Recently, there have been many efforts to utilize fiber Raman amplifier in long-distance, high capacity WDM systems. The net gain [15] is one of the most significant parameters of the FRA. It describes the signal power increase in the end of the transmission span and presents the ratio between the amplifier accumulated gain and the signal loss. It can be simply described by the expression:
,)0()(
net 
 P  z  P G
 =
 (9) If the Raman gain is not sufficient to overcome fiber losses, it is useful to introduce the concept of the on–off Raman gain using the definition [16]:
off   pumpWith s on pumpWith s  R
 L P  L P  LG
)()()(
 =
 (10) Clearly, GR (L) represents the total amplifier gain distributed over a length Leff .
4.
 
R
ESULTS AND
P
ERFORMANCE
A
NALYSIS
 
The optical FRAs have been modeled and have been parametrically investigated in different fiber cable medias such as true wave reach fiber, Freelight, and single mode fiber (SMF). In fact, the employed software computed the variables under the following operating parameters as shown in Table 1. Table 1. Proposed operating parameters for performance signature of Raman amplifiers.[3, 5, 12, 13,17]
Operating parameterSymbolValue and unitOperating signal wavelength
!
s1.45
"
 
!
s,
#
m
"
 1.65 Operating pump wavelength
!
p1.2
"
 
!
p,
#
m
"
 1.28Input signal wavelengthPSo Pso=0.4 mWInput pump powerPpoPpo =0.2:1 WForward pump ratio rf0.5Signal attenuation
$
s
$
s = 0.2 dB/kmSpectral linewidth of optical source
%!
0.1 nmTransmission distancez0
"
 z, km
"
 100Types of fiber cable mediaFreelightSMFTruewave-RSPump attenuation (dB/km)
$
p0.2600.2630.256gR (1/W.km)gR0.540.420.69
 Then the set of the series of the following figures are shown below as the following results can be obtained: Fig. (1) has clarified that in the case of forward direction as the distance z increases, the pumping power decreases exponentially, In case of backward direction as distance z increases, the pumping power increases exponentially. As well as in case of bi-directional: For z
"
 50km, the pumping power decreases exponentially, and for z > 50 km, the pumping power increases exponentially. As displayed in the series of figs. (2-6) have assured that without any amplification with increasing the transmission distance, z, the output signal power decreases exponentially. While in case of forward directional for certain value of initial pumping power: Initial pumping power = 0.5 W, for distance 1 < z, km
"
 35, the output signal power increases, for 35 < z, km
"
 100 the output signal power decreases, and in backward directional for distance 1 < z, km
"
 75 km, the output signal power decreases, for 75 < z, km
"
 100 the output signal power increases. The same like at: Initial pumping power = 0.7 W, for distance 1 < z, km
"
 40 km, the output signal power increases, for 40 < z, km
"
 100 the output signal power decreases, and in backward directional for distance 1 < z, km
"
 80 km, the output signal power decreases, for 80 < z, km
"
 100 the output signal power increases. After using different media of optical fiber cable, it is indicated that the true wave reach fiber presented the best results in comparison with other fiber media. Fig. (7) has demonstrated that the variation of gain with pump power for different fiber lengths at a constant signal input power. The results showed that forward and  backward pumping have the same result. The gain of the FRA linearly increases with pump power. As a result; the gain coefficient in dB/W reduces for high pump powers. In addition, a higher gain can be obtained at a longer Raman fiber with sufficient pumping. The Truewave fiber has a higher gain than the two other fiber types. Figs. (8-10) have assured that in the backward directional the net gain decreases with the fiber length until it reaches a certain level depending on the pump power and then increases until it intersects with axis (approximately reaches zero). It is clear that, in all cases, the gain increases with the pump power. Figs. (11-13) show that in the forward directional the net gain increases with the fiber length until it reaches a certain level depending on the pump power and then decreases until it intersects with axis (approximately reaches zero). It is clear that, in all cases, the gain increases with the pump power.

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