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Study Note on Dynamics

# Study Note on Dynamics

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Published by micheleling6696
Dynamic
Dynamic

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Published by: micheleling6696 on Jul 02, 2014
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07/02/2014

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Self-study notes - BASIC DYNAMICS OF STRUCTURES AND VORTEX SHEDDING
This note are intended as a reminder of a simple method for determining the natural frequency in bending of a structure so that a check can be made to see whether this frequency coincides with that of any imposed dynamic load, particularly that caused by vortex shedding as a result of wind action.We shall not consider damping here and so shall not assess the amplitude of any resulting excitation.The method makes the reasonable and very practical assumption that any deflections of a structure are  proportional to the applied force. Thus, the structural members may be considered to be springs.In accordance with Newtons law of motion, the equation
F  !"#
states that if the structure carries a mass !m" its acceleration !a" is proportional to the applied force !#".\$y considering simple harmonic motion behaviour of the structure the basic equation required for assessment of natural frequencies is
!%&n
o

wheren
o
% frequency of vibration !cycles per second or &'"k % elastic stiffness of the spring system supporting the mass !N(m"m % mass undergoing vibration !kg")o, we require information regarding the stiffness and mass of the system in order to determine the natural frequency. Note that the correct units for force, mass and length are N, kg and m, respectively, for this equation to give the frequency in c(s or &'.*s a simple example, consider a mass of +.kg suspended from a spring of stiffness -N(mm.
!  &"' \$(\$  ) N*!!  ) + &,
-
N*!
&ence,
H./)"&, '"&&,+)%&n
-o

onsider a simply/supported bridge loaded at the quarter point by a vehicle of +0t !+0,000kg". If the deflection at the loaded point has been either computed or measured to be +.mm under a load of +kN, then we can compute the natural frequency.
- 0 * 10 * 1&, t
Ignoring the self/weight of the bridge, for simplification, we have spring stiffness !k" as
!*N&,+2)"2 !,,&'", N,,,3& defle4t5onlo#d
'

1ass vibrated is m % +0,000 kg so that
H.-,"& ,,,3&,&,+2)"2 %&n
'o

)uppose we have a cantilever of length 2 with a load # at the end which causes a deflection !3" at that point.
F0
δ
We know from simple beam bending theory that the end deflection for this configuration is given by
IE-0F
-

where 4 is the modulus of elasticity and I is the second moment of area of the section. &ence, the stiffness k is given by
-
0IE-F defle4t5onlo#d
δ
)o, our basic equation for natural frequency becomes
-o
0!IE-%&n

In practice, a structure !such as the bridge and cantilever weve 5ust looked at" will have self/weight and this will affect the natural frequency. \$efore considering such a distributed self/mass we will look at a structural member consisting of two point masses !m
+
and m
6
". Now we have two Newtons equations instead of one
F
&
 !
&
#
&
and
F
%
 !
%
#
%
There are now two natural frequencies, each resulting from the coupled effect of m
+
and m
6
and the stiffness of the structure. This is because each mass added to the structure must add one degree/of/freedom to the deflected shape. onsider a cantilever with two masses, m
+
and m
6
!
&
!
%
\$elow are two possible deflected shapes in which the masses deflect either in the same or in the opposite directions, respectively.The stiffness of the cantilever in the 6 modes must be different because the curvatures of the member are different in the two cases. &ence, two distinct frequencies arise from application of the basic natural frequency equation.In structures it is usually !although not always" the lowest frequency that is of greatest concern because it is the one most likely to be associated with applied wind forcing !and also wave forcing".&ow can we determine the natural frequency of a structure with a uniformly distributed self/mass7 This can be done by considering, for example, our cantilever with two point masses, one being a mass m
+
at a distance x from the support !*" and the second an equivalent end mass m
e
. It is equivalent in the sense that it is the value of the end mass that causes the same frequency of vibration as m
+
.

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