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Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

# Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

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GD&T-An Insight
GD&T-An Insight

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06/26/2013

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Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T), when made an integral part of theProduct Development/Delivery Process through drawing previews/reviews, is the toolthat can have the greatest impact on improving quality, cost and delivery of yourproduct. GD&T is not new, but there is newness about it. Recent developments inCAD and CMM technology, ISO Standards and Statistical Process Control havebrought GD&T once again to the forefront of design, quality and manufacturing.GD&T is a common language that may be used to improve communication betweendesign, quality, manufacturing, suppliers and customers.For nearly two hundred years, industry has been struggling with the problem of clearpart definition. The latest and most successful approach has been to employGeometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T). After nearly sixty years of refinement, industry now has a Standard which will handle virtually every situation.The Standard is published by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and isdesignated ASME Y14.5M-1994.
Some of the advantages of using GD&T on engineering drawings andproduct data sheets are that it:
Uses datum and datum systems to define dimensional requirements withrespect to part interfaces.

Specifies dimensions and related tolerances based on functional relationships.

Removes ambiguity by applying universally accepted symbols and syntax.

Provides information that can be used to control tooling and assemblyinterfaces.

Expresses dimensional tolerance requirements using methods that decreasetolerance accumulation

Straightness
- a condition where an element of a surface or an axis is a straightline.
Flatness
- is the condition of a surface having all elements in one plane.
Roundness
- describes the condition on a surface of revolution (cylinder, cone,sphere) where all points of the surface intersected by any plane.
Cylindricity
- describes a condition of a surface of revolution in which all points of asurface are equidistant from a common axis.
Profile of a Line
- is the condition permitting a uniform amount of profile variation,ether unilaterally or bilaterally, along a line element of a feature.
Profile of a Surface
- is the condition permitting a uniform amount of profilevariation, ether unilaterally or bilaterally, on a surface?
All Around Symbol
- indicating that a tolerance applies to surfaces all around thepart.
Angularity
- is the condition of a surface, axis, or center plane, which is at aspecified angle from a datum plane or axis.
Perpendicularity
- is the condition of a surface, axis, or line, which is 90 deg. Froma datum plane or a datum axis.
Parallelism
- is the condition of a surface, line, or axis, which is equidistant at all,points from a datum plane or axis.
Position Tolerance
- defines a zone within which the axis or center plane of afeature is permitted to vary from true (theoretically exact) position.
Concentricity
- describes a condition in which two or more features , in anycombination, have a common axis.
Symmetry
- is a condition in which a feature (or features) is symmetrically disposedabout the center plane of a datum feature.
Run out
- is the composite deviation from the desired form of a part surface of revolution through on full rotation (360 deg) of the part on a datum axis.
Total Run out
- is the simultaneous composite control of all elements of a surface atall circular and profile measuring positions as the part is rotated through 360.
Maximum Material Condition (MMC)
- is that condition of a part feature wherein itcontains the maximum amount of material within the stated limits of size. That is: minimum hole size and maximumshaft size.

Least Material Condition (LMC)
- implies that condition of a part feature of sizewherein it contains the least (minimum) amount of material, examples, largest holesize and smallest shaft size. It is opposite to maximum material condition.
Regardless Of Feature Size (RFS)
- the condition where the tolerance of form, runout or location must be met irrespective of where the feature lies within its sizetolerance.
Projected Tolerance Zone
- applies to a hole in which a pin, stud, screw, etc., is tobe inserted. It controls the perpendicularity of the hole to the extent of the projectionfrom the hole and as it relates to the mating part clearance. The projected tolerancezone extends above the surface of the part to the functional length of the pin, stud,and screw relative to its assembly with the mating part.
Tangent Plane
- indicating a tangent plane is shown. The symbol is placed in thefeature control frame following the stated tolerance.
Free State Variations
- is a term used to describe distortion of a part after removalof forces applied during manufacture.
Diameter
- indicates a circular feature when used on the field of a drawing or indicates that the tolerance is diametrical when used in a feature control frame.
Basic Dimension
- used to describe the exact size, profile, orientation or location of a feature. A basic dimension is always associated with a feature control frame or datum target. (Theoretically exact dimension in ISO)
Reference Dimension
- a dimension usually without tolerance, used for informationpurposes only. It does not govern production or inspection operations. (Auxiliarydimension in ISO)
Datum Feature
- is the actual component feature used to establish a datum.
Dimension Origin -
Signifies that the dimension originates from the planeestablished by the shorter surface and dimensional limits apply to the other surface.

Feature Control Frame
- is a rectangular boxcontaining the geometric characteristics symbol, andthe form, run out or location tolerance. If necessary,datum references and modifiers applicable to thefeature or the datums are also contained in the box.

Conical Taper -
is used to indicate taper for conical tapers. This symbol is alwaysshown with the vertical leg to the left.

Slope -
is used to indicate slope for flat tapers. This symbol is always shown withthe vertical leg to the left.

Counterbore/Spotface -
is used to indicate a counter bore or a spot face. Thesymbol precedes the dimension of the counter bore or spot face, with no space