depthlessness of the image. The art of Jeff Koons is a good example of such waning of affect in cultural life and is frequently discussed as either banal and apolitical or, alternately, ironic and provocative.
Some authors have argued that modernity has never been a coherent and pervasive system or ide-ology, for the project of modernity was fully real-ized in few historical settings. Some praise modernity for its applications of standards and boundaries that allow for the formation of cultural canons and supposedly collectively agreed cultural norms. Likewise, the project of modernity is often admired for its emphasis on reason, for attempting to safeguard the sanctity and rights of the individ-ual, and for its promotion of scientific rationality as the basis for decision making. Furthermore, modernity has fostered a commitment to valuing the collective political struggle of marginalized groups. From the perspective of postmodernity, the project of modernity was always too suspicious of other cultures, ways of life, and thought that are not deemed appropriately modern, rational, or scientific. Postmodernism is thus much about expe-riencing and embracing difference and diversity and the cultivation of hybrid, cosmopolitan models of cultural engagement. Moreover, postmodern-ism is sometimes even about embracing the pre-modern, for example, in finding enthusiasm for alternative medicines or non-Western spirituali-ties. Postmodernity has also encouraged people and researchers to relativize the basis of their knowl-edge, not to assume certainties or universals, and urged them to understand ideas about universal truths and reason as bogus and merely reflections of entrenched knowledge-power relations. On the downside, as in the extreme reflections of the late-period Jean Baudrillard, postmodernity becomes a toothless critique that merely mirrors the mode of reasoning postmodernists want to expose, for example, in their criticisms of media cultures. Likewise, with its focus on lifestyle, celebrity, and consumerism, postmodernity has struggled to escape the shallowness of its own modes of cultural production. Though it is not an entirely dead set of ideas, many scholars believe we are certainly post-postmodernity and well beyond the era of high-modernity. Academic discourses in the last decade or so have been picking at the bones of postmod-ern theory to judge which bits are worth keeping and combining with the best features of modernity to sustain a new vision of social progress.
Complex Inequality; Ontological Insecurity; Self; Society and Social Identity
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is a current and significant term that deals with cultural identity and diversity; it
can be defined as a distinctive positive attitude toward cultural diversity. Thus, the fundamental root of its conception rests on the idea of
Multiculturalism, then, is understood as the study and support for peaceful coexistence of diverse cultures in a society. Thus, it is an issue of ethics. The emphasis or the first principle of multi-culturalism has to deal with the definition of
How culture is defined shapes human perception. The interaction and communication of diverse cultures should be thought in relation to reception, recognition, and acknowledgment of