6. Make sure to turn all access layer ports to Access mode for security reasons.
int range f0/0 - 15
switchport mode access
ISL (Inter-Switch Link) – Cisco proprietary & encapsulates the entireframe. Thus adds 26 bytes header (out of which VLAN tag is only 2byte, but rest is junk for future use)
[not supported on 2950]
802.1q – Open standard & inserts tag into frame instead of encapsulation. Only 4 byte tag is inserted (including 3 bit for priority)2.
Configure Trunk protocol (either ISL or 802.1q)
switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q
If using 802.1q, make sure Native VLAN is configured properly. Because if a802.1q trunk port receives an untagged packet, it won’t know what to do withit. Then if we configure Native VLAN, we must make sure it’s same on theadjacent switch, otherwise we will receive Native VLAN mismatch error.(
Native VLAN is practically required in VOIP where we don’t want separateether for our PC in the cubical. We would just like to use the ether port on theVOIP phone to connect our PC too. VOIP phone has the capability of sendingVLAN tagged packet, but PC always sends untagged packet, which will bethen discarded by switch if Native VLAN is not configured.)
switchport trunk native vlan 10
Configure a port mode to Trunk and use Non-negotiate.
If not using VTP pruning then manually configure the allowed VLANs to passthrough the trunk.
switchport trunk allowed vlan 10,20,30
Verify using ‘
sh int f0/0 trunk
VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol):
Basically used to replicate VLAN revisions to switches.
Advantage: We don’t have to manually configure VLANs in everyswitches
Disadvantage: Can be a huge problem if not properly used.
Scenario: If we mistakenly connect a switch consists of differentVLANs and that switch is a VTP server with a same domainname too, then it will advertise VTP updates to all clientswitches and will thus result into flushing of their vlan databasewith the new information. This will result into a completenetwork outage because the ports of those client switches wereconfigured for the VLANs which are now lost.2.
Configure VTP domain. Domain name is case sensitive.