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poly-propylene

poly-propylene

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Published by: api-19738746 on Nov 27, 2009
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E X E C U T IV E
SUM M ARY
E .1 .0
IN T R O D U C T IO N
E .I.I
P r o d u c ta n d A p p lic a tio n s
P o ly p ro p y le n e (PP) is a th e rm o p la s tic m a te ria l a n d w a s first
p ro d u c e d
i n

1 9 5 7 b y G u lio N a tta in I ta ly . I t is p ro d u c e d b y p o ly m e riz a tio n of p ro p y ie n e in p re s e n c e of th e Z ie g le r-N a tta ty p e

c a ta ly s ts .
O n ly
c ry s ta llin e
(is o ta c tic )
fo rm
o f
p o ly p ro p y le n e is of c o m m e rc ia l im p o r ta n c e . P P is a v a ila b le
a s
a
h o m o p o ly m e r
(P P H P )
a n d
c o p o ly m e r
(P P C P )
o f
ethylene-propylene com onom ers. T he copolym er m ay further
b e
ra n d o m
c o p o ly m e r
i n
w h ic h
e th y le n e
i s

ra n d o m ly d is trib u te d in th e p o ly m e r m a trix o r a s a b lo c k c o p o ly m e r in w h ic h b lo c k s of e th y le n e a n d

p ro p y ie n e a re a tta c h e d to th e
m ain
c h a in .
B lo c k
c o p o ly m e rs
a re
a ls o
know n
a s
im p a c t
copolym ers.
P P
i s
a
v e ry
v e rs a tile
p o ly m e r
h a v in g
lo w
d e n s ity

(0 .8 9 g m /c c ) a n d s u p e rio r rig id ity a m o n g s t v a rio u s th e rm o p la s tic m aterials. Its

s u p e rio r
s tre n g th
to
w e ig h t
ra tio ,
c o m b in e d
w ith
r e s is ta n c e
to
c h e m ic a ls ,
a n d
th e rm a l
s ta b ility
h a s
re n d e re d
th e
p la s tic
a s
m ost
p o p u la rly
u s e d
a fte r
p o ly e th y le n e a n d p o ly v in y l c h lo rid e .
C om m ercial
g ra d e s
o f
p o ly p ro p y le n e
h o m o p o ly rn e rs

a re a v a ila b le in a w id e v a rie ty w ith th e m e lt flo w in d e x v a ry in g fro m

0 .5 to 7 0 M F I. T h e c o p o ly m e rs a r e a ls o a v a ila b le in th is
ra n g e
a n d
h a v e
a n
e th y le n e
c o n te n t
of u p to
25% . These
grades have superior, low tem perature im pact strength
a n d
im p ro v e d c la rity o v e r P P h o m o p o ly m e rs .
( i )
P o ly p ro p y le n e h a s a w id e r a n g e of a p p lic a tio n in p a c k a g in g ,
hom e
p ro d u c ts ,
consum er
g o o d s ,
a u to m o tiv e
p ro d u c ts ,
in d u s tria l
p ro d u c ts ,
te x tile
y a r n s ,
fib re s
a n d
fa b ric s .
P o ly p ro p y le n e
c a n
b e
p r o c e s s e d
in to
a
w id e v a rie ty
of end
p ro d u c ts
v is in g
c o m m o n ly
u s e d
p la s tic
p ro c e s s in g
te c h n iq u e s
s u c h
a s
in je c tio n
m o u ld in g ,
b lo w
m o u ld in g ,
e x tru s io n , c o m p re s s io n m o u ld in g a n d
th e rm o fo rm in g .
S om e
of the
p o p u la r
a p p lic a tio n s
of p o ly p ro p y le n e
a re
fo r
film s,
fib re s
a n d
filam en ts,
in je c tio n
m o u ld e d
g o o d s
a n d
e x tru d e d s h e e ts , p ro file s a n d p ip e s . F ilm s a r e e ith e r T u b u la r
Q uenched
o r
B ia x ia lly
O rie n te d
a n d
a re
m a in ly
u s e d
fo r
p a c k in g fo o d p r o d u c ts , te x tile s , g a r m e n ts , c ig a re tte s , e tc . In
the fibre
a n d
fila m e n t
s e c to r, P P fila m e n t y a r n s
a n d
s ta p le
fib re s
a re
v e ry
p o p u la r
fo r
c a r p e t
y a r n s ,
c a rp e t
b a c k in g ,
u p h o ls te ry ,
a p p a r e ls ,
filte r
c lo th ,
d is p o s a b le
d ia p e rs ,
a u to m o tiv e
in te rio rs ,
e tc .
I n je c tio n
m o u ld e d
p ro d u c ts ,
e s p e c ia lly
in a u to m o tiv e , e le c tro n ic s a n d
o ffic e
a u to m a tio n ,
fu rn itu re
a n d
d o m e s tic a p p lia n c e s s e c to rs , a re v e ry p o p u la r.
E .1 .2
M a n u fa c t u r in g P r o c e s s e s
T he
m a n u fa c tu rin g
p ro c e s s
fo r
p o ly p ro p y le n e
c a n
b e
c la s s ifie d
in to
th re e c a te g o rie s b a s e d
o n th e p h a s e in w h ic h
re a c tio n
ta k e s p la c e .
A .
Solution P olym erization
B .
Slurry P hase P olym erisation
1 .
Loop reactor process
2 .
S tirre d
ta n k
heavy diluent process
3 .
B o ilin g m o n o m e r p r o c e s s
C .
Gas P hase P olym erisation
1 .
F lu id b e d
p ro c e s s
2 .
M e c h a n ic a lly a g ita te d
p ro c e s s
A m o n g st th e p ro c e s s e s m e n tio n e d , s o lu tio n
p o ly m e ris a tio n
p ro c e s s
a n d
th e
s t i r r e d
ta n k
h e a v y
d ilu e n t
p ro c e s s
a re
o b s o le te
a n d
e x is tin g
p ro d u c tio n
c a p a c itie s
u s in g
th e s e
p ro c e s s e s
a re
b e in g
revam ped
fo r
u s in g
o th e r
c o m p e tin g
te c h n o lo g ie s .
T he
lo o p
re a c to r
p ro c e s s
a n d
g a s
p h a s e
process are popularly used.
A .
S o lu tio n
P o lym er izatio n
: This process uses the
f ir s t
g e n e ra tio n
of c a ta ly s ts
w h ic h
h a v e
p o o r p ro d u c tiv ity
a n d
s e le c tiv ity
to
c ry s ta llin e
polym ers. The
p o ly m e riz a tio n
i s
c a rrie d
o u t in
a series of stirred
ta n k
re a c to rs
c o n ta in in g
liq u id
propylene, heavy
h y d ro c a rb o n
d ilu e n t a n d
c a ta ly s t.
T he
re s u lta n t
s lu r r y
i s
f la s h
c o n c e n tra te d
t o
rem ove
u n re a c te d
p ro p y le n e .
T he
p o ly m e r
i s
filte re d ,
d rie d
a n d
e x tru d e d
i n
a
p e lle t fo rm . T h e d ilu e n t is re c o v e re d
i n
th e
p ro c e s s
a n d
p u rifie d
b y
a ta c tic
p o ly m e r
(am orphous)
re m o v a l .a n d
recycled back in the reactors. Propylene
fro m
f la s h
c o n c e n tra tio n
a ls o
h a s
to be purified
b e fo re

re c y c le . This process is unsuitable for block copolym er production. D is a d v a n ta g e s

o f
th e
p ro c e s s
in c lu d e
p o o r

m onom er c o n v e rs io n ra tio d u e to h ig h a ta c tic p o ly m e r fo rm a tio n , h ig h c a ta ly s t re s id u a ls in

th e p o ly m e r w h ic h
m ust be
d e a s h e d ,
a n d
h ig h
u tilitie s
c o n s u m p tio n
d u e
to
d ilu e n t
re c o v e ry ,
p u rific a tio n a n d re c y c le s te p s .
B .
Slurry Phase Heavy D iluent Polym erisation
: In this
p r o c e s s ,
tw o
ja c k e te d
s tir r e d
ta n k
re a c to rs
a re
u s e d
i n
s e r ie s . T h e re a c tio n is c a rrie d o u t in h e x a n e /h e p ta n e h e a v y
d ilu e n ts .
R e a c tio n
i s
c a rrie d
o u t
a t
7 5 \u00b0C
a n d
2 4 0
p si
pressure. The resultant
s lu r r y
is flashed,
c e n trifu g e d
a n d
p u rg e d w ith n itro g e n b e fo re d ry in g in flu id iz e d
bed dryers.
T he
pow der
i s
s u b s e q u e n tly
m ix e d
w ith
a d d itiv e s
a rid
p e lle tiz e d .
( iii)

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