On what Logic is and its utility.
3. Knowledge is either apprehension, and nothing further or appre-hension together with judgment. Apprehension is the perception of theimage of a thing in the mind. Judgment means referring (literally leaning)one thing to another /2/ afﬁrmatively or negatively. The whole [apprehen-sion and a judgment combined] is called declaration.
4. Neither is the whole of either of these two things entirely intuitive,else there would be nothing we do not know; nor entirely deductive, elseour reasoning would be a circle, or an [interminable] chain.
5. Part of each is intuitive, and part is deductive, and the result of rea-soning,
of such an arrangement of known things [in the mind] that theylead to [the knowledge of] unknown things. But this arrangement is notalways correct, for some thinkers contradict others as regards the results of theirreasonings, nay thesame personcontradicts himself at different times;therefore a canon (a code ofrules) is required, acquainting us with the waysof deriving deductive knowledge from self-/3/evident [knowledge], andmarking the boundaries between sound and bad reasoning. This canon isLogic. It is described as the canonic organon, (
an instrument consist-ing of rules), the observance of which guards our intellect from error inreasoning.Logic is neither entirely intuitive, else there would be no need for learn-ing it, not is it entirely deductive, else it would be a circle or [interminable]chain, but some[of its doctrines]are intuitive and othersare deductive, andfounded upon the intuitive ones.
On the Subject of Logic.
6. The subjects of a Science are those of its accidents which are in-quired into, whether they belong to it immediately, that is to say, belongto its essence, or whether they belong to its parts or whether they belongto it [mediately, but are] co-extensive. The subjects of Logic are apprehen-sional and declarative notions, for the Logician inquires into them so faras they lead to unknown apprehensional or declarative [notions], and in3