Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
1Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
w.11 - Political Culture and Political Socialization - Ivan Volgyes

w.11 - Political Culture and Political Socialization - Ivan Volgyes

Ratings: (0)|Views: 45|Likes:
Published by api-19624225

More info:

Published by: api-19624225 on Nov 28, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/18/2014

pdf

text

original

# ,-l* m :* $ n "'-w ffi
'. ,"eALtu ! . :r y ,
; oiia '
ii i'i r l e il
;:'-""$ + :p .f
f
-^ .^ ..Y '::
L/ l ! a
/d t+ u ttt'. r .)to 7
; : t f f ii l ' i i ! : " * ' l i illll " - i i " " f f ; : x " " " i l ' i l: : : : : i : : f l
g *tfr*n ,*k 'ffi*f**$ *ffi
i:'i""'"",:1 ffi
l; ; f l
-"{,;"l'*,W *,
j* * * ,::" - *
m n $ *$ n **r**t*rw n n
;* '* x n "n s ll$ * fi* ffix .* ry *
*p # *q ***N **,'N in ffi
* ffi:,"3 :[f":';"."'J H J il
3 ;:1 " il1 :n iil
il1 s '
a n d
ro .h e
s o c ia i
a n d
J a n o sS in a n
llv a n v o tg Y e s l
P o litic a l
C u ltu rea n dP o titic a l
S o c ia liz a tio n
i n H u n g a ry
a fte rth e S y s te mC h a n g e
T e nv e a rs .inth e lile o l a c o u n try ,
s o c ie ty '
o ra n a tio nm ig h tb e c o n iid e r e d
as h ;rtin te rv a l.
T o o s h o rtlo r th e s o c i a l s c i e n c st o d ra wtim e le s sc o n c lu -
s io n sa b o u lth \u20acm ovem enl
o l s o c ie tya n dc u ltu re ,
a n d o s p e c ia lly
in a s u b -
ie c liik gs o c ia liz a tio n ,
th eio rm a tio na n dd o v g lo p m e n t
o fc u ltu reH o w s v e r'
a s th ey e a r1 9 9 0b ro u g h t
a b o u tth o p e a c e fu l
fa llo i th e s o c ia lis t
re g im ei n
H u n q a ry ,
e v e nlh is s h o rtp e r;o de n a b l e su s to m a k eafg w m o roo r le s s
im o o ;a ;l o e n e ra liz a t;o n s
w ilh a r e l a l i v e s a l e t y .
in ep r e ie n ts tu d y is ap a n o la n e x p e rim e n t.
lts s u b je c l
sgem ss im p le :it
a im sj ta s c e r ia in in g
th e c h a ra c t\u20ac ris tic
fe a tu re so fth e c h a n g e sth a ta tfe c t-
e dth e p r o c o s so lp o litic a l
s o c ia liz a tio n '
its a g e n c ie s ,
i t s m o d iu m a n d .ils
m essaoos in c eth e tra n s itio n ,
a n d a sa r\u20ac s u lto f th e s e ,th o c h a ra c te d s tic s
o f th e ;e w ly lo rm e dp o litic a l
c u llu r e C e rta in ly ,
th iss lu d y c a nd ono m oro
lh a nju s tr a is in gth s p r o b l e m sa n d m a k i n g s o m s g e n e r a liz a tio n s ,
s ln c oln ls
is a lo p ic\x h ic hw o u ldfills e v e ra l
b o o k s .'
T ra n s itlo ni nH u n g a ry
T e nv e a rsa fte rits la ll,s o c ia lis mh a s a lm o s td is a p p e a re d
lr o m lh o liv e so l
rh e ;e o p le .lf lh e y s tillm e n tio nth e re g im eth a td s te rm in e dlh e irliv e sfo r
n e a itvtiv e d e c a d e s ,
th e yta lka b o u tita s th e 'c u r s e d 'o n e '
W h a tth es y s te m
w a s lik e in re a litya n dh o w ita tfe c te dp e o p le ,
seem sire le v a n t;th e irm em -
o rie sa rem uchlis sn e g a tiv eth a no n e c o u ldh a v eg x p g c te di n th e im m e d i-
a tep eo d o f th e tra n s itio nN a tu ra lly ,
m em oryh a sa lw a y sb e e na g s 'd e p e n _
d a n ito a c e rta ine x te n t,
iu s ttik eth ep ro c e s so lp o litic a l
s o c ia liz a tio n
. . .
T h e te a tu re so tth e tra n s itio nd o te rm in e dth e 'p ro d u c ts '
g fth e p o lilic a l
s o c ia liz a tio n
a n d
c u llu le 'T h es y s te mc h a n g \u20acr e s u lle din a m or\u20aco p e n
m o red e m o c ra tic
s o c ie ty ,g o v enm enta n deconom yl tw a sa p ro c o s so u r
in o w h ic hlh e c o u n trys lo w lyd is p o s e do fth o l o a t u r e s o f lh e o n e 'p a r ty 's y s -
te ir, w h ilelh e p a r ty 'le a d e r s n ip
v o te ds o c ia iis ma n dits e lfo u l o fp o w a r'o r
d iJ n o th in ot o p re v e n ril T h e H u n g a ria olr a n s itio n ,
c o m p a re dto a s im ila r
o ro c e s sin 'a n vo th e rc o u n try '
to re c a s tsi n its c o n tin u o u s n e s s
a n dn o n 'v io '
i" " i" " ir i" ln i,
ir"o "te n ta ily
c o n s e n s u a l
c h a ra c te r
o lth e fu tu rep o litic a l
s tru c tu r\u20ac .
l t is w o rthm e n lr o n in g
h o w e v e r'
th a tlo r m a n yp e o p leth \u20acp re le r-
1
T n 6 6 o sa n d $ e7 o sw e rBln \u20ac g o d \u20ac .a g s o l 3 lr d l\u20ac so nt'tl6s u b jo c l
o lp o lc a 'c u h u to i
u n lo n u n a r s lv
lh \u20acam encanp o lr[c a l
fr6 n c \u20acd r d n o lp a Ys p \u20ac d a la n e n rc nlo m 6p@ 6s3o r
o o lic d ls o c ;iz a lio na .d lh o o u rp o rl
o 'p o ilc ac J h u r\u20acin E a s l's mE d o p e
i -
^
i iii it'"F !',
" "
s " .iiio rr n ;Y o u lsD e m o c ra c i\u20ac s :rh \u20ac
c s n rra r
E u ro p d n
E x p \u20ac n -
e n c e B -u o a D \u20ac s r
P a p \u20ac 6 o n D o _ o lr a lc
T ra ls itio r'6 8(1 9 9 3 )
tIIi
e n c e o l th is c o n s e n s u a l
s t r u c t u r e m e a n t l h a t t h eig h l fo r v e n g e a n c ea n d
re v e n g e ,
o r fo ra V io le n t
te m in a lio nth en e lw o rk so f th e n o m e n c la tu re
h a d
b e o nre je c te db y a c o m m o nc o n s e n t
b e l w e e n t h e s o c i e t ya n d th eg o v e rn -
in g e l i t e . J 6 z s e f A n t a l l s l a m o u s s t a t e m e n t :
" Y o u s h o u ldh a v eb e e n k in d
e n o u g ha n d m a d e a r e v o lu lio n "
e x p r e s s e st h e d ile m m ap e rfe c tly :
u p lo
1 9 9 8 ,il w a s th is s e a rc hfo r c o n s e n lth a t c h a ra c le riz e d
lh e(tra n s itio n a l)
y e a rso l th e k a n s iiio n .
C o n s e q u e n lly ,
th e c h a ra c te ris lic s
o f lh e p o litic a l
s o c ia liz a tio n
h a v eb e e n
d e te rm in e d
b y th e c h a ra c te fis tic s
o f th etr a n s ilio n .
A sw e havep o in te do u l
i n f o r m e r s l u d i e s ,p o litic a l
s o c ia liz a lio n
m a y b e re v o lu tio n a ry 3
o rc o n tin u -
o u s .F le v o lu tio n a r y
p o lilic a l
s o c ia liz a tio n
u s u a l l ym e a n s r e ' s o c i a l i z a t i o n -
l t
i s ap ro c e s sl h a l l a k e s e l f e c t f r o m a d u l l t o a d u l t ,i t i sb a s e do n b e lie fa n d
c o m m ilm e n t,
o r fe a rs th a t a re e iih e r re a lo r im a g in e d ,
a n d ii in llu e n c e s
b e h a v io r
ra th e rl h a n th e a c tu a l
w a y o fv a lu e -fo rm a iio n .
R e g a rd in gH u n g a a
ia n h is to ry ,
p ro c e s s e s
o l lh is k in dw e r ely p ic a l
o fth ep e rio d sb e tw e e n1 9 4 9
a n d1 9 5 5 ,
o r 1 9 5 7a n d 1 9 6 1 ,w h e ne x h ib itin g
o n e s
f a i l h i n a c l i o n w a s
m u c hm o reim p o rla n i
lh a n a c tu a llya c c e p tin ga n d in te r n a liz in g
th e v a lu e s
a n dp r in c ip le s
o f th is 'la ilh '.C o m p a re dto th e p ra c tic eo f th e s ey e a rs ,tra n -
s itio nln H u n g a r yi m m e d ia te ly
a n d 1 oth e la rg e s t
p o s s ib lee x l e n l a u l h o d z e d
th eN G O S1 od e c la reth e ir v a lu e sr e la tiv e ly
ir e e ly ,b u tth e re w a sn o d e rn a n d
lo w a rd sth e w h o le s o c ie tylo lo r c ib lyd e m o n s lra te
th e 'p r o d u c ls '
o f lh e re -
s o c ia liz a lio n .
A g e n c ie so f s o c ia liz a tio nd u rin g th e tra n s itio n
L ite ra tu red i s c u s s i n g s o c i a l i z a t i o n
d is lin g u is h e s
b e tw e e nre -s o c ia liz a tio n
a n d th ep ro c e s so f c o n tin u o u s
s o c ia liz a iio n .
A si t is p o in te do u t, o n oo {th e
fu n d a m e n ta l
d iffe re n c e s
is th a tb o thp ro c e s s e sre ly o n d itfe re n t
a g e n c ie s
a n d o rg a n iz a tio n s .
P rim a rya g e n c ie sn o rm a llys u p p o rt
c o n tin u o u s ,
{a c e -to -
la c e ,p e rs o n a l
s o c ia liz a tio n
({a m ily ,
f r i e n d s , r e l i g i o n ) ,
w h ile r e v o lu lio n a r y
s o c ia liz a tio n
leanson secondary,
in fe rio ra g e n c ie s .
A s it isg o in g to b 0
e x p o u n d e d
b e lo w ,
th e ro leo f th e la m ilyin th ep ro c e s so t H u n q a ria n
s o c ia l_
i z a t i o n c h a n g e d a n dd e v e lo p e ds lo w ly .
It h a s n o t re a llyb e c o m em o r e c o h e s i v e ,
w h ic his n a tu ra lly! n d e rs ta n d -
a b leil w e c o n s id e r
th e fa c lth a tth ela m ily ,
a s t h e b a s i cs o c i a l u n i t ,
h a sb e e n
m o rea n d m o rele ttto ils o w n d e v ic e sandhaslhusbecom eu n s te a d yi n its
s e a r c hf o r n e w v a l u e s . I n a d d i l i o n ,
r e l i g i o n i n H u n g a r yh a s n e v e ra c q u i r e d
ap o s itio nth a til o c c u p ie sin P o la n d :
lh e c h u r c h e sa n d lh e ir l e a d i n g c l e r g y
h a v en e v e r ,
n e ith e ri n th eb e g in n in gn o rla te r ,b e e n a b l e t o e x t e n d t h e i rlu n _
d a m e n ta l
v a lu e si o t h e w h o l e n a t i o na n d m a k ep e o p leb e lie v ein lh e m5
3 , L V O lg y e s :
P o lltic a l
S o c iai z a l i o n i n H l n g a r y ,
P a p e rp re s e n le d
a t lh e A n n u a llM e e lin g
o llh e
A m o ric a n
P o l l t i \u20ac l s c i e n c o A s s o c l a t i o n
in 1 9 7 2 ,47
4 ,O n t h 6 l o p i co l c o g n i l i v e
d is s o n \u20ac n c e
s \u20ac o :l.F e s lin g e r ,
A T h g o r yo , C o g n i l i v o
D is s o n a n c e ,
S ta n lo .d .
C A ,S la n lo r dU n iv e r s ily
P re s s ,1 9 5 7
5 , F o ra n e a r lvo ic lu r \u20aco i th e P o l i s h e x a n p l a s e e :a . P ia s e c k i,
Z a g a d n e n io
ls lo n e ,
w a rs a w ,
P a x .1 9 5 4
T h i si s t h e c a s ew ( n l h e c tlc le so llr le n o s
a s w c l r 'I r r v r r E w J v u ' d ,
' ' u , ' , I J ,
i n s t e a d o f s l r e n g t h e n i n g
th o m ,G th e rlu n c lio n e dto th e \u20ac lfe c tg le n s rv a tin g
th e m .L ife lo n gtrie n d s h ip s
o fte nr e lla p a r ta lo n gt h e n e w d i v i d i n gl i n e so f
p o ||lic s ,
a n d th e yw e re n o t r e s t o r e d b e f o r e l o n g .I n m a n y c a s o sh o w e v e r,
th e c o m m itm e n t
to n e w p o litic a l
v a l u e sm a n a g e dto d i$ o lv eth e b o u n d so f
td e n d s h ip s
lo rg o o d .T h o re lo re ,
it is n o tb y a c c id e n t
th a tc i r c l e so f t r i e n d s '
e s s e n tia l
a s th e ya ro a s a g e n c ie so fp d m a rys o c ia llz a tio n ,
w e re u n a b l et o
d e v o lo pto p e rfo rm th e n e w lyim p o r ta n i
ta s k o l s o c ia liz a tio n ,
n e ith e rc o u ld
o fie r a'n o r m ' th a t w o u ld have been p a rtic u la rlya tlra c tjv \u20ac fo r th ey o u n g .
T h isis p e rh a p sw h y n e w a g e n tso f s o c ia liz a lio n
w e re a b le t o e m e r g es o
r a p id lyt o w a r d s t h ee n d o f th o 9 0 sin H u n g a ry :
th e s ew e re s e m i-in lo rm a l
c ir c le sb a s e do n a c q u a i n t a n c e
orcom m ong p h e reo l in le re s t,
th en e tw o ll.s '
b e in ge i t h e ro f e c o n o m i c(A m w a y ,
T u p p o M a re ,
K O D E X )
o r s o c ia l(U o n s ,
R o ta ry .
e lc .)n a tu re .
S e c o n d a r y a g e n c i e s lik ep a rtio so r s c h o o ls w e re in th op ro c e s so l
re a rra n g e m e n t
a sw e ll.T h e o u tw a r dm a n ife s ta tio n
o l th e c h a n g \u20aco f th e ir
v a l u e sh a s d o n e a lo tt o lh e e lle c to fc o n lu s in gth o s \u20acto b s s o c ia liz e d .
T h e
lra n s fo rm a tio n
ofsom es ta te s c h o o l si n t o c h u r c hs c h o o ls ,
a n d th ec o n s e -
q !\u20ac n tr a d ic a ls h ift
o fth e irv a lu e -s y s te m s ,
o as im ila r ly ,
th e n s w d e _ s o c ia liz e d
n a tio n a l
c u rric u lu m ,
o r a n yo f ils v a r ia n ts ;
th e s gw e ro a ll fa c to rsth a tc o n _
lrib u te dtolh e u n s u c c e s s lu l
a d a p ta tio no fth e s \u20ac c o n d a ryp ro c e s s e so f
s o c ia liz a tio n ,
A m ongih e re a s o n sw e s h o u ldc \u20ac d a in lym e n tio nth ela c tth a t
a llg o v e .n m e n ts
a ft;r1 9 9 0( t h a tis , in 1 9 9 0 , 1 9 9 4 , a n d1 9 9 8 )e n d e a v o r e d
to e n h a n c eth e s e c o n d a rya d o p tio no fth e irv a lu \u20ac s .lt is o n lyto w a rd sth e
e n do fth e m ille n iu mth a ta m e d iu ms u ita b lefo rc o n s c io u s
s o c ia liz in g
a c tiv -
ity b e g in sto e v o lv e .H o w e v e r,

i t is o n ly ih e F I D E S Zt h a th a s s ofa r b e \u20ac n s u @ e ;s tu lw ithits s o c ia liz in ga c tiv itie sth ro u g hits s c h o o lsa n d6 lite tra in - in g

C h a n g e so fth e m e d la
"T h eM e d iais th e m e s s a g e ",
s a y sth e la te s lo g a n ,y e tits n e a n in g in th e
E a s te rnE u rc p e a np o s t-c o m m u n is t
s o c io tie si s q u ited ifl\u20ac re n t
fro m w h a tit
is in th e s o c ie tie so f E u r o p ea i l dA m o ric aW \u20ac cannotp ro v id \u20acap ra g m a tic
h is to ryo l th e m a tte rin th ep re s e n t
s tu d y '
h o w e v e r,
a fe lvlu n d a m e n la l
fa c tg
s h o u ldd e lin ite lyb ela id d o w n
1 .O nlh o o n eh a n d ,m e d iaIn lh ep lu ra ls o c i\u20ac tie s
d is lr ib u te s
aw h o l6lo to f
o o litic a l.
e c o n o m ic ,

s o c ia l,e tc .v a lu e s O n th e o th \u20ac rh a n d ,b e s id eb r o a d _ c a s t i n oe n o r m o u sam ounto la im le s sju m b l\u20ac ,m e d iao tte nc re a te sc u ltu r o a n dd

v a lu e sits e lf,th ro u g hits e x is te n c e '
a n dth ro u g hth e s g ["p u fp o s \u20ac '
n e s so l th em essagestra n s m ilte d .
P l u r a l v a l u e sa re e n s u ro db o thb y th e
e c o n o m icp re s s u reo l th e fre e m a rk e tc o m p e titio n ;
and byth op o w e d u l
a c liv ityo n ih e s id so f th e 'o w n \u20ac r 6 '
o tth e s ev a lu e s ,
th e u ltim ara tioo lw h ic h
is ,n a ir-rra tty ,
p e rs u a A in g
th op u b lico fth e r ig h tn e s s
o fth e s \u20acv a l u e s ' P o l i t i c s
a n do th e rv a i u e sb e c o m ep ro d u c ls ,
lik e w a s h in gp o w d e rlo r in s ta n c g '
a n d
th e ir 's e llin g
w illb elh e s a m ek in do fm a rk e tin g
a sis lh e in tr o d u c tio n
o la
n e wc o m m e rc ia l
p ro d u c t_
2 . l\re d iai n th e p o s t-c o m m u n is t
c o u n trie s ,
d u rin gth e s o c ia lis t
re g im e ,
ls e d to b e th elr a n s m in e r
o fp re s cb e d ,e n c o d e da n do n e _ w a y
m e s s a -g e s .,
T h isp ra c ltc eb a s ic a llyfe lla p a rld u rin ga 4 d a fle rth e tra n s ilio n .
a n dc a r;ie rs
o rp ru ra r
v a ru e sa p p e a re dw ith d i f i e r i n g r e g u l a r i t y ,
a c tiv ,tya n os k e n g th .
_3 . D u r i n g t h e y e a rso f th e p o l i t i c a l
tra n s itjo na n d a tte M a rd s ,
lh e 'le a d in g
lig u r e s '
o r ' s t a r s ' o l t h em e d iabecam ec o n s id e r a b ly
c o n fu s e da s to th e ;
ro le in th a tp ro c e s s .F irs tly ,
th e yc o n s id e re dth e m s e tv e s
th e h e ro e sa n d
fro n l-lin es o ld ie r so f th e lr a n s ilio n .
T h is w a stru e insom ec a s e s .I no th e r
in s ta n c e si ta p p e a re dc o m ic a l,
e s p e c ia llyi f a s s e rte db y io rm e rk e e na n d
in d u s tr io u s ly
s e r v in gS a u lso fth e p o litic a l
a p p a ra lu s ,
w hoa ll o fa sudden
tu m e d in to fig h iin gP a u lso f d e m o c ra c y .
S e c o n d ly ,
m anyo f th ern e d ia
s ta rs ,a c c o rd in gto th e irow ns o c ia liz e dv a lu e s ,
d id n o lm anaqeo f w a n tl o
a tla rnlh o s e te c -n iq u e slh a t a /eth e v irtJ e o l o b ie c tiv eo ; fa c t-fin d in g
re p o rle rsin s o c ie tie sw h e red e m o c ra c yis w e ll,e s ta b lis h e d .
F u rth e rm o re .
th e o w n e r sa n d l e a d i n gfig u re so l lh e n e w m e d iaw e reu n a b leth e m s e lv e s
to d e fin ep r e c is e ly
t h e v a l u e s t h a tth e yc o n s id e re d
im p o rta n t.
N e v e rth e lo s s ,
th e yw e reo b lig e d- n a v i g a r e n e c e s s e r ee s ll- lo lix th e b o u n d a rje s
o l th 6 ir
c o m m ilm e n l
to w a rd sth e g o v e rn m e n t
o r th e o p p o s ilio nw h ic h ,th o u g h
a l m o s t i n v i s i b l e ,
w e rec o n s ta n U y
c h a n g in g .
T h e ira e r i a l s w h i c h g o tlle x ib le
d u r i n gt h e y e a rso f s o c ia lis m ,
c a nq u ic k ly 'r e c e iv e
th e s ig n a lsc o m i n gf r o m
th eg o v e rn m e n t,
a n da re a b le to p r e c is e iyd e te rm in eh o w fa r ih e yc a n g o .
l\,lo re o v e r,
d u e lo th isp ro c e s s ,
th e iro th ic a l
v a lu e sr e s lo n ih o b a s iso f r e !
a liv is m .
T h u s ,lh e e x le n to f h o w fa r o n ec a n g o w illn o tb e d e te rm in e d
b y
'u n tilil is e th ic a l',
b u tb y 'h o w m u c ha n d w h a tit is w o r thfo r s o m o th in qo r
s o m e o n e '.
T h ep re s u m e dp re s s u reo ls u b s is le n c e
o rth ep ro s p e c ls
o f m ;k -
in ga fo rtu n ep lu n g e dlh e E a s le m -E u ro p e a n
m e d ia -o p e ra to a s
- o r th e y le l
th e m s e lv e s
1 o b e p lu n g e d- in loe th ic a l
s itu a tio n s
fro m w h ic ho n ly a te wo l
th e mc o u ldc o m eo u Ia s w in n e rs .
4 . F in a lly ,
th e w h o les o c ie tyg o tc o n fu s e da b o u t t h e p o s itiv eh ie ra rc h y
o l
v a l u e s a s w e l l a s a b o u t t h ep o s itiv ea n d tim e le s sv a lu e s .
W a sil s o c ia l
s e n -
s i b i l i t y ? T r u t h ? W e l f a r e ?N ,,la rk e l?
J o b ? W h ile in th e 'c u r s e d ,
r e g im eo n e
w a sto ldo r m a d e- lh ro L rg h
o n e s s o c ia lis e d
h ie ra rc h y
o f v a lu e s,1 0a c c e p t,
c o n s c io u s ly
o r u n c o n s c io u s ly ,
th e o ffic ja llys e ttle dp re le re n c e s
o f v a lu e s ,
t h e n e w f r e e d o ml o r c e dth e m o reth o u g h tlu l
c itjz e n st o m a k ea c h o ic e .
T h e

w id era n g eo f th e a d o p la b lev a lu e s- fro m n a tio n a lis mo f th e e x ire m e g h t, lo th e s ta n d a r d so f th e c o s m o p o lila n' c a p tla lis m,h a da tw o fo lde ffe c l: b e s id etr ig h le n in gp e o p leit a ls o lr e e dth e p r o c e s so f th e irm a k in gv a lu e ju d g e m e n ts ,

and show edhow u n l i m i t e d t h e i r s p a c e f o ra c tio n is . T h e
a s s u m p tiO n
o l c iv ilr e s p o n s ib ility
lh ro u g hc o n s c io u sr e p r e s e n ta lio n
o Jc e r-
ta in v a lu e sh a sn o tre a y a p p e a re dy e t,n e ith e ri n th e m e d iae th ico f'T h e
h o u s ei so n fire l,-s o c ie ty ,
n o r inas ig n ific a n t
p a no f a c tiv itie so fo o litic a l
a c to rs ,
M essagestro mth eb o
l e
In th e n e x ls e c tio no f o u rs tu d yw e s h o u ldansw erlw o q u e s tio n sw h ic h .
h o w e v e rd itfe re n t,
s tillfit e a c h o lh e r: (1 )W ho,o r w h ic ha g e n c ie sw e re
lh o s e th a ttrie d tos o c ia lis e ,p e o p le ,,
a n d w h ic hw e re th \u20acm essagesth a t
w e r\u20ace n fo rc e dw iths o c ia lis in g
a i m s , i nth e la s t y e a r so fih e ,c u rs e d ib y th \u20ac
p a rtyle a d e r s h ip .
{2 )W hatis h a p p e n in g
to d a yw ithth e p ro c e s so f in flu e n c -
in gs o c ie ty ?C e rta in ly ,
th e fo rm u la tio n
o f th e s sq u e s tio n si s p r o v o c a liv e
i n
ils e ll:lh e r e isa w e ll- p e r c e p tib le
d itte re n c ob e w e \u20ac nth e p a s s iv \u20ac,p e o p le ,
a n d th e a c tiv e's o c ie ty '.
S o v e ra l
b o o k sc o u ldb \u20ac w d tte no n th is s u b ie c t
a s
w e l l ;f o r t h es a k eo t s h o rtn e s sw e o n ly r\u20ac p e a tth a tin th e p re s e n t
s t;d y w e
re g a rda s th e b a s iso f th e s o c ia lis t
r e g i m et h a tit tre a te dp e o p lelik 6 to o ls ;
th o fa c t lh a t th e re g im ee x e rc is e dg o o dor badp o w e ro v e r p \u20ac o p le ,a g
o p p o s o dt o
d e m o c ra tics y s le m s ,w h e ro s o c ie ty u s u a ljya p p e a rs a s
s u p r e m e i nm a k in gd e c is io n s .
Y o liij s o b v io u st h a td i f f e r \u20ac n c a s
a p p e a ra lo t
m ores h a lp lyin lh is c a lc u la te d ,
c a te g o ric a l
fo rm u la tio n .
T h \u20ac re a lityis m o re
s u b tle ;
th e e v a lu a tio no f th e s o c ia lis in ga c tiv itypm a rily d o p e n d s o n t h e
r e la tio n s h ip
b e t w e e n t h es y s te ma n dlh e m e d iu m ,
A le w e x p la n a tio n s
s h o u ldb e a d d e dto th 6 s c h e m eb e l o w .F i r s to f a ll, it
i sth e d o m e s ticm e d iu mo t s o c ia lis a lio n ,
th \u20ac re la tio n s h ip
b e t w e e n t h ea g e n -
c ie sa n d th e in te rn a l
m essagesth a tlh e s c h e m eis s u p p o s e dto re v e a l.
W e
a relu lly a w a reth a lth \u20ac e x te rn a l,
in to rn a tio n a l
s u rrd u n d in g s
w e rac ru c ia l
i n
th e la s ty e a rso l th o'c u rs e d '.I \ro r\u20ac o v e r,
w \u20ac r g a lis elh a t th \u20ac s a m e s u r-
ro u n d in g s
h a d d ilfe re n t
e tfe c tso n th ec o u n try 'slile in 1 9 9 9fr o m w h a tth e y
u s e dto b \u20ac to w a rdth e \u20ac n d o l th e 8 0 s ,la rg e lyre s u ttjn gfro m o u r p r\u20ac s e n t
N A T o -m e m b e rs h ip
o ro u r lu tu rejo in in gth e E U .H o w \u20ac v e r,
th e in flu e n c eo f
th s e x te rn a l
s u (o u n d in g sw a so x tre m e lyl m p o rta n t
a ls o In th ey E a rsim m e -
d ia to lyp re c e d in gth e tra n s itio n .
O n e o f th e fu n d a m e n ta l
ro a s o n so f th e
r e g im e 'sfa ll w a s th o s o c ia lis t
e c o n o m icp o lic yw h lc h ;'w h il\u20aca lr e a d yc o l-
l a p s i n g a n d e r o d i n g w a s m o fea n d m o r\u20acc o m p \u20ac lle d toc d s ls lre a tm e n t.
T h is
re s u lte din th e b a c k l o g o l t h ew h o los o c ia lis t
re g im g /e c o n o m y
i n lh 6 a re a .
P a r a lle l
to th is ,l h 6 S o v i e te m p i r ea n d t h o s y s le mo l p o w e ra n d g o v o l n a n c g
f e l l a p a r t , i n c l u d i n gth o fu n d a m o n la l
e ro s io no f G o r b a c h e v 's
e ra ;th ep a rty
le a d e r s h ip
d o e sn o ld a r e o r w a n tt o i n v o l v eth e a rm e dfo rc \u20ac s ,o r is u n a b lo
lo d o s o , in o r d e rt o s t a b i l i s eth e c o lla p s in gr e g im e .
C la fy in gth es p e c ia lp o s itio n
o f th ea c c e p te d's o c ia lis e r s l
tra n s m ltte rs ,
i s
p a rtjc u la rly
im p o rta n t
i n o r d e rt o u n d e r s t a n dth e s c h e n i Qb e l o ' l v , ' l d on o t
w is hto d e a lh e re w ith th e h is to ric a t
a n ds p e c ia l
ro leo f th e in te llig e n ts ia -
tr o m J u lie nB e n d al o G y o r g y K o n r a da n d lv a nS z e l6 n y i,-th is h a sa lre a d y
7
S 6 6 J . E \u20ac n d a ,L s T r a h ls o nd \u20ac s C te rc ,P a s , tv to n la rd ,1 $ a ,or K oo6ds and S z \u20ac 6 n y |s
s lu d i\u20ac s o ni n t e l l j g \u20ac n t s l a , o r t h e e x c e p u o n a l t yv a tu a b tes tld io s o t lG n id dh
0 jJ 6 s z 0 t\u20ac !6 \u20ac
m e la n l6 ie ja ,
B u d a p o s t,
P a tria ,
1 9 9 1
!
. .t :
6 - S e elh e e s s o n lia l
s l u d yb y E S ' i r k d z y :
P o lit
k a ik u llra-p o lir ik ak o m n ru n
k d c io ,
B u d a p e s l,
1 9 9 8 .
E d .E r a s m lsO s irls

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->